Offside, the golden goal and the mouse How has football evolved in 100 years? Offside, the golden goal and the mouse How has football evolved in 100 years?

Offside, the golden goal and the mouse How has football evolved in 100 years?

Offside, the golden goal and the mouse How has football evolved in 100 years?  When the German striker "Oliver Bierhoff" scored the second goal for his country in the final round of the European Nations Cup 1996 against the Czech national team, the Milan striker at the time did not expect that his goal would enter the history of football, not as the first substitute player to score a double in the final of the competition, Rather, he is the first player in the world to score the “golden goal” in a major official competition after the FIFA officially approved that rule in the knockout matches in various competitions affiliated with FIFA at the time.  The “Golden Goal” rule was one of the many laws introduced by the International Football Association Board, to the game, some of which were finalized, while some laws were stopped and canceled after years of approval.  Since its inception, in its modern form in the early twentieth century, and after the founding of the International Football Association in 1904, football has witnessed many changes in the laws of play such as offside, penalty kick, number of changes per team, offenses that require penalty kicks and fouls that result from Committing the red card and other rules governing the first popular game.  Offside Before 1863, the game of football was played without regulation or law, and the match lasted two or three hours, while some players were taking a rest, and there were even those who smoked a cigarette when the ball was far from him, according to what Rudd in the book “Football between Sun and Shadow” by Uruguayan writer “Adriano Galliani”, as it was similar to rugby, in which all players were allowed to play with foot and hand, before being determined by special rules that contributed to becoming the first popular game in the world.  And if the law of announcing a penalty kick and working with that rule dates back to the year 1890, in one of the matches in England, then the law of infiltration is one of the laws with which football began, and several sources revealed that it was adopted in 1848, but it witnessed a development in turn, and it was added It has some technological pillars, given that many cases of infiltration caused widespread controversy, and television images later proved that a number of crucial goals were unlawfully canceled and their owners were deprived of acquiring deserved titles and vice versa.  Offside is one of the important articles in the football law, and Article No. 11 is assigned to it, and it stipulates that an offside is counted against the player if he receives the ball from his teammate, and at the moment of passing the ball to him is closer to the goal line than the ball and the second defender of the opposing team (note that the goalkeeper The goal is considered one of the defenders if it is one of the two), but offside is not counted if the attacker receives the ball from an opposing team player or from a corner kick, throw-in or goal kick.   Various research and literature that dealt with the history of the ball reveal that infiltration was a complex law in the beginning, and many players failed, just like referees, to deal with it, but later it became one of the most important laws regulating the game.  Offside picture of Liverpool FIFA has approved several measures to help referees accurately announce offside decisions, including semi-automated technology that helps determine precisely the moment the ball is passed forward, and draw lines showing the position of the advanced player receiving the ball, to indicate whether there is an offside case or not.  The new technology prepared by FIFA for use in the Qatar World Cup 2022 eliminates the responsibility of the video assistant referee for the manufacture of lines with regard to evaluating cases of infiltration, as the new system shows lines and issues a warning sound if the shot indicates an offside situation.  The golden goal and the silver goal The golden goal rule was introduced for the first time experimentally in the Uruguay-Australia match in the quarter-finals of the 1993 FIFA Youth World Cup, but its official adoption was in 1996, after it was agreed between FIFA and the European Football Association “UEFA” to implement the new rule in the World Cup. European nations established at that time in England.  The golden goal rule gave Germany the European Nations title in the final against the Czech Republic, where Oliver Bierhoff was the first player to score a golden goal since its adoption, 5 minutes after the start of the first extra period.  At Euro 2000, France striker David Trezeguet repeated the same achievement when he scored a golden goal in the final against Italy, and before that, in the 1998 World Cup France, his colleague Laurent Blanc scored a goal against Paraguay in the second round.  And continued relying on the golden goal, which was also called the killer goal or "the goal of sudden death" until the year 2004, in March of that year, the International Federation, in light of severe criticism, recognized the impartiality of that rule that oppressed many teams and clubs and deprived them of the opportunity to return in the match And decided to abolish the golden goal rule permanently.  But the European Union has single-handedly adopted a new rule, which is the silver goal, meaning that the match continues even if one of the two teams scores a goal in the extra periods, but for one game, that is, if the team scores a goal in the first extra period, the match is completed until the end of that half, before the match ends. That rule is also canceled after one year.  "The Mouse" Has the controversy ended the arbitration errors? And the efforts of the International Football Association continued to develop the game through the adoption of many new laws and procedures, including, for example, penalties, where the assistant referees were granted broader powers to make decisions after their role was limited to offside, corner and solicitation cases, and dealing with cases of interference from the back on the The opponent is equal to the red card in the face of the offending player.   In 1958, during the Sweden World Cup, one player was compensated during the match, and in the 1976 World Cup, each team was allowed two changes with the possibility of changing the goalkeeper when injured before allowing 3 changes as the goalkeeper, and in 2020 each team could make 5 changes due to the effects of the virus. corona.  As for the red and yellow papers in football, they were not used. Rather, the referee addressed the players orally with a word of warning or expulsion, and as a result of the difference in language and the players’ lack of understanding of the referees’ words, in the year 1968 in the Olympic Games, specifically for the first time, the yellow and red papers were relied upon and publicized for the first time, before To be adopted by the International Federation and all the football federations in the world.  In 1992, the International Federation introduced an amendment to the back pass so that the goalkeeper was no longer allowed to touch the ball with his hand when receiving it from his colleague, and that decision was the result of the 1990 World Cup wasting time and boring and negative play.  The adoption of the new rule coincided with the confusion of some goalkeepers. In 2001, the shot of the goal scored by Bayern Munich against Hamburg from an indirect free kick, after the goalkeeper grabbed the ball with his hand in the last minute of the match, was decisive in Bayern winning the league title at the time.  In 2016, the International Federation approved the technology of the video assistant referee, or the referee of the “mouse room”, which is a referee who monitors ambiguous shots in some cases and not others, such as goals, penalty kicks, direct red cards and errors in identifying the sanctioned player, then the referee is referred to return to The "mouse" room and the confirmation of the snapshot, and it was officially applied for the first time in the World Cup tournaments in the 2018 World Cup in Russia.   The new technology allows the referee to stop the match and go to review the situation through the “mouse” screen to verify the shot on a screen designated for the purpose and located near the touch line, before announcing his final decision either by confirming the initially announced decision or announcing a contrary decision. The referee can not go to the screen and only communicate via the headset with the referees of the video room to gain time and avoid repeated suspensions of the match if he is satisfied with the opinion of the mouse referee.  It is noteworthy that the video assistant referee technology sparked widespread controversy a few years after its adoption, between supporters of its feasibility and opponents of its use, claiming that it did not end the fatal arbitration errors in football and killed the fun of the game with many stops.  And in 2021, FIFA approved 11 new amendments to the football law, to start applying it in all competitions, including taking into account that the shoulder is not part of the arm when calculating hand touch violations, as well as reviewing other rules related to penalties for players and allowing them to leave the club. Any place in the stadium when changing them to avoid wasting time, and other new laws that were mainly aimed at developing the game and increasing its popularity and making it more fun and keeping pace with the development witnessed by the world at various levels

When the German striker "Oliver Bierhoff" scored the second goal for his country in the final round of the European Nations Cup 1996 against the Czech national team, the Milan striker at the time did not expect that his goal would enter the history of football, not as the first substitute player to score a double in the final of the competition, Rather, he is the first player in the world to score the “golden goal” in a major official competition after the FIFA officially approved that rule in the knockout matches in various competitions affiliated with FIFA at the time.

The “Golden Goal” rule was one of the many laws introduced by the International Football Association Board, to the game, some of which were finalized, while some laws were stopped and canceled after years of approval.

Since its inception, in its modern form in the early twentieth century, and after the founding of the International Football Association in 1904, football has witnessed many changes in the laws of play such as offside, penalty kick, number of changes per team, offenses that require penalty kicks and fouls that result from Committing the red card and other rules governing the first popular game.

Offside
Before 1863, the game of football was played without regulation or law, and the match lasted two or three hours, while some players were taking a rest, and there were even those who smoked a cigarette when the ball was far from him, according to what Rudd in the book “Football between Sun and Shadow” by Uruguayan writer “Adriano Galliani”, as it was similar to rugby, in which all players were allowed to play with foot and hand, before being determined by special rules that contributed to becoming the first popular game in the world.

And if the law of announcing a penalty kick and working with that rule dates back to the year 1890, in one of the matches in England, then the law of infiltration is one of the laws with which football began, and several sources revealed that it was adopted in 1848, but it witnessed a development in turn, and it was added It has some technological pillars, given that many cases of infiltration caused widespread controversy, and television images later proved that a number of crucial goals were unlawfully canceled and their owners were deprived of acquiring deserved titles and vice versa.

Offside is one of the important articles in the football law, and Article No. 11 is assigned to it, and it stipulates that an offside is counted against the player if he receives the ball from his teammate, and at the moment of passing the ball to him is closer to the goal line than the ball and the second defender of the opposing team (note that the goalkeeper The goal is considered one of the defenders if it is one of the two), but offside is not counted if the attacker receives the ball from an opposing team player or from a corner kick, throw-in or goal kick.


Various research and literature that dealt with the history of the ball reveal that infiltration was a complex law in the beginning, and many players failed, just like referees, to deal with it, but later it became one of the most important laws regulating the game.

Offside picture of Liverpool
FIFA has approved several measures to help referees accurately announce offside decisions, including semi-automated technology that helps determine precisely the moment the ball is passed forward, and draw lines showing the position of the advanced player receiving the ball, to indicate whether there is an offside case or not.

The new technology prepared by FIFA for use in the Qatar World Cup 2022 eliminates the responsibility of the video assistant referee for the manufacture of lines with regard to evaluating cases of infiltration, as the new system shows lines and issues a warning sound if the shot indicates an offside situation.

The golden goal and the silver goal
The golden goal rule was introduced for the first time experimentally in the Uruguay-Australia match in the quarter-finals of the 1993 FIFA Youth World Cup, but its official adoption was in 1996, after it was agreed between FIFA and the European Football Association “UEFA” to implement the new rule in the World Cup. European nations established at that time in England.

The golden goal rule gave Germany the European Nations title in the final against the Czech Republic, where Oliver Bierhoff was the first player to score a golden goal since its adoption, 5 minutes after the start of the first extra period.

At Euro 2000, France striker David Trezeguet repeated the same achievement when he scored a golden goal in the final against Italy, and before that, in the 1998 World Cup France, his colleague Laurent Blanc scored a goal against Paraguay in the second round.

And continued relying on the golden goal, which was also called the killer goal or "the goal of sudden death" until the year 2004, in March of that year, the International Federation, in light of severe criticism, recognized the impartiality of that rule that oppressed many teams and clubs and deprived them of the opportunity to return in the match And decided to abolish the golden goal rule permanently.

But the European Union has single-handedly adopted a new rule, which is the silver goal, meaning that the match continues even if one of the two teams scores a goal in the extra periods, but for one game, that is, if the team scores a goal in the first extra period, the match is completed until the end of that half, before the match ends. That rule is also canceled after one year.

"The Mouse" Has the controversy ended the arbitration errors?
And the efforts of the International Football Association continued to develop the game through the adoption of many new laws and procedures, including, for example, penalties, where the assistant referees were granted broader powers to make decisions after their role was limited to offside, corner and solicitation cases, and dealing with cases of interference from the back on the The opponent is equal to the red card in the face of the offending player.


In 1958, during the Sweden World Cup, one player was compensated during the match, and in the 1976 World Cup, each team was allowed two changes with the possibility of changing the goalkeeper when injured before allowing 3 changes as the goalkeeper, and in 2020 each team could make 5 changes due to the effects of the virus. corona.

As for the red and yellow papers in football, they were not used. Rather, the referee addressed the players orally with a word of warning or expulsion, and as a result of the difference in language and the players’ lack of understanding of the referees’ words, in the year 1968 in the Olympic Games, specifically for the first time, the yellow and red papers were relied upon and publicized for the first time, before To be adopted by the International Federation and all the football federations in the world.

In 1992, the International Federation introduced an amendment to the back pass so that the goalkeeper was no longer allowed to touch the ball with his hand when receiving it from his colleague, and that decision was the result of the 1990 World Cup wasting time and boring and negative play.

The adoption of the new rule coincided with the confusion of some goalkeepers. In 2001, the shot of the goal scored by Bayern Munich against Hamburg from an indirect free kick, after the goalkeeper grabbed the ball with his hand in the last minute of the match, was decisive in Bayern winning the league title at the time.

In 2016, the International Federation approved the technology of the video assistant referee, or the referee of the “mouse room”, which is a referee who monitors ambiguous shots in some cases and not others, such as goals, penalty kicks, direct red cards and errors in identifying the sanctioned player, then the referee is referred to return to The "mouse" room and the confirmation of the snapshot, and it was officially applied for the first time in the World Cup tournaments in the 2018 World Cup in Russia.


The new technology allows the referee to stop the match and go to review the situation through the “mouse” screen to verify the shot on a screen designated for the purpose and located near the touch line, before announcing his final decision either by confirming the initially announced decision or announcing a contrary decision.
The referee can not go to the screen and only communicate via the headset with the referees of the video room to gain time and avoid repeated suspensions of the match if he is satisfied with the opinion of the mouse referee.

It is noteworthy that the video assistant referee technology sparked widespread controversy a few years after its adoption, between supporters of its feasibility and opponents of its use, claiming that it did not end the fatal arbitration errors in football and killed the fun of the game with many stops.

And in 2021, FIFA approved 11 new amendments to the football law, to start applying it in all competitions, including taking into account that the shoulder is not part of the arm when calculating hand touch violations, as well as reviewing other rules related to penalties for players and allowing them to leave the club. Any place in the stadium when changing them to avoid wasting time, and other new laws that were mainly aimed at developing the game and increasing its popularity and making it more fun and keeping pace with the development witnessed by the world at various levels
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