Hijab controversy: petitions of Muslim girl students were sent to a larger bench

हिजाब विवाद:मुस्लिम छात्राओं की याचिकाओं को बड़ी बेंच के पास भेजा गया, कल सुनवाई  कर्नाटक हाई कोर्ट (Karnataka High Court) ने बुधवार, 9 फरवरी को राज्य में मुस्लिम छात्राओं द्वारा दायर याचिकाओं को एक बड़ी बेच के पास भेजने का निर्णय लिया है. इन छात्राओं ने अपनी याचिकाओं में दावा किया गया था कि उन्हें सरकारी आदेश के कारण हिजाब (Hijab row) पहनकर कॉलेजों में प्रवेश करने की अनुमति नहीं दी जा रही है. कर्नाटक हाईकोर्ट की मुख्य न्यायाधीश रितु राज अवस्थी, न्यायमूर्ति कृष्णा एस दीक्षित और न्यायमूर्ति जेएम खाजी की पीठ 10 फरवरी को हिजाब विवाद पर सरकारी नियम को चुनौती देने वाली याचिकाओं पर सुनवाई करेगी.  जस्टिस कृष्णा एस दीक्षित ने कहा,"मुझे लगता है कि इस मामले में बड़ी पीठ के विचार की आवश्यकता है. पड़ोसी उच्च न्यायालय के निर्णयों से निकलने वाले ज्ञान का इलाज किया जाना चाहिए आपको बता दें, इस मुद्दे पर कर्नाटक के कई शिक्षण संस्थानों में हिजाब के विरोधी और समर्थक आमने-सामने आ गए हैं. कर्नाटक के शिमोगा समेत कई जिलों में पिछले कुछ दिनों में हिजाब के समर्थन और विरोध को लेकर कई प्रदर्शन हुए हैं. इस दौरान छिटपुट हिंसा भी देखने को मिली है.  विवाद के बीच बेंगलुरु में नई गाइडलाइन बेंगलुरु में हिजाब विवाद के बीच पुलिस विभाग ने नई गाइडलाइन जारी की है. इसके मुताबिक, बेंगलुरु में स्कूल, प्रि-यूनिवर्सिटी कॉलेज, डिग्री कॉलेज या अन्य शैक्षणिक संस्थानों के गेट के 200 मीटर के दायरे में किसी भी तरह के जमावड़े या विरोध-प्रदर्शन की अनुमति नहीं होगी.यह गाइडलाइन तत्काल प्रभाव से दो हफ्तों तक लागू रहेगी  हिजाब पर हमला: थाली पर,अलमारी पर, लड़कियों के कपड़ों पर पहरा-क्रोनोलॉजी समझिए कुछ समय पहले तक यह बहस होती थी कि क्या हिजाब (Hijab) और बुर्का औरतों के दमन के हथियार हैं. क्या कपड़े का एक टुकड़ा औरतों के वजूद पर सवाल खड़े करता है. जिसे अंग्रेजी में लैक ऑफ एजेंसी कहा जाता है, हिजाब उसका सबूत है. लेकिन कर्नाटक में हिजाब विवाद ने इस पूरी बहस को एक अलग ही दिशा में मोड़ दिया है.  राज्य के कई स्कूल एडमिनिस्ट्रेशन उत्पीड़न के कथित हथियार, यानी कपड़े के इस टुकड़े के लिए नफरत से भरे हुए हैं. अब यहां हिजाब सिर्फ लैक ऑफ एजेंसी नहीं दर्शा रहा. यह पब्लिक स्पेस में डर पैदा करने लगा है. या यूं कहें कि इसके जरिए पब्लिक स्पेस में डर पैदा किया जा रहा है.  बुर्का विवाद का इतिहास पुराना है इस विवाद का इतिहास सात समुंदर पार से शुरू हुआ था. 1989 में फ्रांस के स्कूलों में हिजाब पर बहस छिड़ी. 18 सितंबर, 1989 को इस्लामिक स्कार्फ यानी हिजाब पर तब विवाद की शुरुआत हुई, जब उत्तरी फ्रांस के क्रेल में गैब्रियल हावेज मिडिल स्कूल में तीन लड़कियों को सिर्फ इसलिए स्कूल से सस्पेंड कर दिया गया क्योंकि उन्होंने हिजाब उतारने से इनकार कर दिया था.  1994 और 2003 के बीच हिजाब पहनने की वजह से मिडिल और हाई स्कूल की करीब 100 लड़कियों को सस्पेंड कर दिया गया, या उन्हें वहां से निकाल दिया गया. दिलचस्प यह था कि इनमें से आधे से ज्यादा मामलों में सस्पेंशन या स्कूल से निकाले जाने को फ्रांस की अदालतों ने अमान्य कर दिया. फिर भी सिलसिला जारी रहा.  फिलहाल यूरोप के कई देशों ने पब्लिक स्पेस में फेशियल कवरिंग पर प्रतिबंध है. स्विट्जरलैंड में 2021 मार्च में एक कानून के जरिए पब्लिक स्पेस में फेशियल कवरिंग को बैन किया गया है. यह नया कानून आम लोगों की सहमति से लाया गया है जिसकी अगुवाई वहां के एक दक्षिणपंथी संगठन ने की है. इसके अलावा डेनमार्क, नीदरलैंड्स और ऑस्ट्रिया ऐसी ही पाबंदियां लगा चुके हैं.  ‘इस्लामिक अलगाववाद’ का खतरा? खास बात यह है कि ये पाबंदियां जिस तरीके से लाई गई हैं, वह बहुत खतरनाक है. अक्टूबर 2020 में फ्रांस के राष्ट्रपति इमैनुएल मैक्रों एक विवादास्पद बिल लेकर आए. सरकार ने दावा किया कि फ्रांस में रहने वाले करीब 60 लाख मुसलमानों के एक ‘काउंटर सोसायटी’ बनाने का डर है. यह बिल ‘इस्लामिक अलगाववाद’ के खतरों को काबू में करने के लिए लाया जा रहा है.  फ्रांस में इन पाबंदियों को हम साम्राज्यवादी सोच से जोड़कर देख सकते हैं, जहां परदे में रहने वाली औरतें राजनैतिक हथियार बन जाती हैं. यह धारणा जातीय श्रेष्ठता से पैदा होती है जहां मुसलमान औरतों को ‘बचाए जाने’ की जरूरत है. फ्रांसीसी साम्राज्यवाद लंबे समय तक अपने उपनिवेशों में रहने वाले लोगों की जिंदगी ‘सुधारने’, उन्हें ‘सभ्य’ बनाने की वकालत करता रहा था.  हिजाब क्या है-डर या आतंक, पहले तय करें लेकिन क्या अब ये पाबंदियां सिर्फ इतनी भर रह गई हैं. भारत में इस पूरे प्रकरण को इस्लामिक चिन्हों को लेकर पैदा होने वाले डर से भी देखा जाना चाहिए. 9/11 के हमले और अफगानिस्तान पर चढ़ाई के बाद से अमेरिकी सरकार ने लोगों में इस्लाम को लेकर अलग ही डर पैदा किया.  चूंकि ऐसा करना, अपनी हर करतूत को सही साबित करने के लिए जरूरी था. अब कुछ लोगों के लिए हिजाब दमन का हथियार है, कुछ के लिए उग्र इस्लाम का खतरा. तो, यह आखिर है क्या- दमन या खतरा? इस बीच में मुसलमान औरतें फंस जाती हैं. पश्चिम में हिजाबी औरतें ‘फॉरेन एलिमेंट’ हैं, ‘अदर’ हैं. और भारत में इसी तरह की राजनीति को बीजेपी बढ़ावा दे रही है. पिछले आठ सालों के दौरान सारे मुसलमानों को पाकिस्तान जाने की धमकी दी गई है. कथित लव जिहाद को लेकर नारे लगाए गए हैं. उन्हें गोहत्यारे, आतंकवादी बताया जा रहा है. बताया जा रहा है कि वो लोग ज्यादा बच्चे पैदा करके भारत पर कब्जा करने की योजना बना रहे हैं. मंदिर तोड़कर मसजिद बनाने की बदमाशी कर रहे हैं. तीन शब्द बोलकर अपनी औरतों को छोड़ देते हैं.  यानी पब्लिक स्पेस में मुसलमान या इस्लाम का ये जो डर पैदा हुआ है, भारत की मौजूदा राजनीति की अभिव्यक्ति है. यह अभिव्यक्ति साफ कहती है कि हम मुसलमानों को हिंदुओं पर हावी नहीं होने देंगे. हिजाब टेकओवर जैसा बन गया है, कि देखिए मुसलमान हर पब्लिक स्पेस पर कब्जा कर रहे हैं.  उन पब्लिक स्पेस में जिन पर हिंदुओं की ओनरशिप है. हिंदुओं को इस ओनरशिप का एहसास दिलाया जा रहा है. बताया जा रहा है कि यह उनका इलाका है, और मुसलमान सिर्फ उनकी शर्तों पर यहां रह सकते हैं. यही वजह है कि हिजाब उन्हें डराता है. एक धर्म वालों को राजनीति तौर पर गोलबंद करने के लिए दूसरे धर्म से डराया जा रहा है. उन्हें समझाया जा रहा है कि एकजुट नहीं हुए तो खत्म हो जाओगे. फिलिस्तीनी कल्चरल थ्योरिस्ट एडवर्ड डब्ल्यू सइद जिसे अदरिंग कहते हैं. अदरिंग यानी धर्म, लिंग, सामाजिक-आर्थिक स्थिति के कारण लोगों के प्रति पूर्वाग्रह रखना.  बुर्का रिग्रेसिव क्यों कहा जाए? यूं हिजाब या बुर्का पहनने, न पहनने पर भी लंबा विवाद रहा है. बुर्के को अमेरिकी एंथ्रोपोलॉजिस्ट और फेमिनिस्ट हना पापनेक ने कई साल पहले ‘पोर्टेबल सेक्लूजन’ कहा था. सेक्लूजन यानी तनहाई. उनकी बाद की पीढ़ी की एंथ्रोपोलॉजिस्ट लीला अबू लुगोद इसे कुछ इस तरह स्पष्ट करती हैं कि बुर्का दरअसल मोबाइल होम्स की तरह काम करता है. वह पब्लिक प्लेसेज़ में और अजनबी पुरुषों के बीच औरतों को आजादी से विचरण करने का मौका देता है.  इसके अलावा इसका यह मतलब भी नहीं कि इससे औरतों की एजेंसी खत्म होती है. दरअसल एजेंसी, च्वाइस और पर्सनहुड जैसे शब्दों के मायने भी हर समाज में अलग-अलग होते हैं. हर समाज का अपना तौर-तरीका होता है. हर तौर-तरीके पर सवाल खड़े करने से पहले यह भी सोचना होगा कि इसका विरोध किधर से किया जा रहा है. औरतें खुद इसका विरोध कर रही हैं या उनकी एवज में पुरुष ही फैसला कर रहे हैं.  लीला अबू लुगोद का सवाल यह भी है कि हमेशा जोर जबरदस्ती से औरतों को परदादारी में नहीं रखा जाता. हाल का इतिहास तो इस बात का गवाह है कि औरतों को जोर जबरदस्ती से बेपरदा किया गया है.  सीरिया की मशहूर पोएट मोहजा काहफ ने अपने निबंध ‘फ्रॉम हर रॉयल बॉडी द रोब वॉज रिमूव्ड’ में बताया है कि कैसे बीसवीं शताब्दी में सरकारों ने तुर्की, सीरिया और ईरान जैसे देशों में आधुनिकता के नाम पर औरतों को बेइज्जत किया. पब्लिक में परदे में न रहने पर सजा देने की बजाय इस बात की सजा दी कि उन्होंने परदा किया हुआ है.  बंदूक की नोंक पर औरतों को बेपरदा किया गया, ताकि सरकार खुद को प्रगतिशील और धर्मनिरपेक्ष बता सके. यानी हिजाब या बुर्का पहनने या न पहनने, दोनों ही मामलों में औरतें राजनीतिक हथियार बनीं. औरतों की खुद चुनने की आजादी खतरे में पड़ी. जैसा कि काहफ लिखती हैं, परदे की मौजूदगी से औरतों की ताकत छिनती नहीं, न उसकी गैरमौजूदगी से वह ताकत छिनती है. यह ताकत इस बात से मिलती है कि क्या उन्हें आर्थिक, राजनीतिक और पारिवारिक हक मिले हैं? यानी हिजाब या बुर्का, अपने आप में औरतों पर अत्याचार नहीं- अत्याचार है, महिलाओं को सामाजिक, राजनीतिक और आर्थिक एजेंसियों से बाहर रखना. यानी स्कूलों में पढ़ने न देना, या अलग बिठाकर पढ़ाना, इससे उनकी ताकत, एजेंसी छीनी जा रही है. बाकी, यह एक लंबी साजिश का हिस्सा है, जो लगातार तय कर रहा है कि मेरी थाली में क्या परोसा जाएगा- मेरी अलमारी में कौन सी किताब होगी- मेरे शरीर पर कैसा कपड़ा होगा.   Hijab controversy: petitions of Muslim girl students were sent to a larger bench Protests near schools, colleges in Bengaluru banned for 2 weeks amid hijab controversy  The Karnataka High Court on Wednesday, 9 February has decided to refer the petitions filed by Muslim girl students in the state to a larger bench. These girl students had claimed in their petitions that they were not being allowed to enter the colleges wearing the hijab row due to a government order. A bench of Chief Justice Ritu Raj Awasthi, Justice Krishna S Dixit and Justice JM Khaji of the Karnataka High Court will hear the petitions challenging the government rule on the hijab controversy on February 10.  Justice Krishna S Dixit said, "I feel that this matter requires consideration of a larger bench. The wisdom emanating from the judgments of the neighboring High Court should be treated Let us tell you, the opponents and supporters of Hijab have come face to face in many educational institutions of Karnataka on this issue. In the last few days, many demonstrations have taken place in many districts including Shimoga of Karnataka in support and opposition to the hijab. During this, sporadic violence has also been seen.  New guidelines in Bengaluru amid controversy Amidst the hijab controversy in Bengaluru, the Police Department has issued a new guideline. According to this, no gathering or protest will be allowed within 200 meters of the gate of schools, pre-university colleges, degree colleges or other educational institutions in Bengaluru. This guideline will be applicable for two weeks with immediate effect.  Attack on Hijab: On the plate, on the cupboard, on the clothes of the girls - understand the chronology The debate on the hijab began in 1989 with the crackdown on some Muslim girls in French schools  Until recently, it was debated whether hijab and burqa were weapons of oppression of women. Does a piece of cloth raise questions about the existence of women? Hijab is the proof of what is called Lac of Agency in English. But the hijab controversy in Karnataka has turned the whole debate in a different direction.  Many school administrations in the state are full of hatred for this piece of cloth, the alleged weapon of oppression. Now here hijab is not just showing lac of agency. It has started creating fear in the public space. Or rather, fear is being created in public space through this.  Burqa controversy has a long history The history of this dispute started from across the seven seas. In 1989, a debate broke out over the hijab in French schools. The controversy over the Islamic scarf or hijab began on September 18, 1989, when three girls at Gabriel Havez Middle School in Creel, northern France, were suspended from school simply because they refused to remove the hijab.  Between 1994 and 2003, about 100 middle and high school girls were suspended, or expelled, for wearing the hijab. Interestingly, in more than half of these cases, suspension or expulsion from school was invalidated by French courts. Still the series continued.  At present, many countries in Europe have banned facial coverings in public spaces. In Switzerland, through a law in March 2021, facial coverings have been banned in public spaces. This new law has been brought with the consent of the common people, which is led by a right-wing organization there. Apart from this, Denmark, Netherlands and Austria have imposed similar restrictions.  Threat of 'Islamic separatism'? The special thing is that the manner in which these restrictions have been brought is very dangerous. In October 2020, French President Emmanuel Macron brought a controversial bill. The government claimed that there is a fear of forming a 'counter society' of around 6 million Muslims living in France. This bill is being brought to control the dangers of 'Islamic separatism'.  We can see these restrictions in France by linking them to imperialist thinking, where women who live in veils become political weapons. This notion stems from ethnic superiority where Muslim women need to be 'rescued'. French imperialism had been advocating for a long time to 'improve' the lives of the people living in its colonies, to 'civilize' them.  What is hijab - fear or terror, decide first But are these restrictions now only so full? This whole episode in India should also be seen from the fear that is being created about Islamic symbols. Since the attacks of 9/11 and the invasion of Afghanistan, the US government has instilled a different fear among people about Islam.  Since doing so was necessary to justify his every act. Now for some people the hijab is a weapon of repression, for others the threat of radical Islam. So, what is this after all - oppression or danger? In the meantime Muslim women get trapped. In the West, hijabi women are a 'foreign element', a 'other'. And BJP is promoting similar politics in India. During the last eight years all Muslims have been threatened with going to Pakistan. Slogans have been raised regarding the alleged love jihad. They are being described as cow killers, terrorists. It is being told that they are planning to capture India by producing more children. They are threatening to build a mosque by destroying the temple. Saying three words, they leave their women.  That is, this fear of Muslims or Islam that has arisen in public space is an expression of the current politics of India. This expression clearly says that we will not allow Muslims to dominate Hindus. Hijab has become like a takeover, see Muslims occupying every public space.  In those public spaces which are owned by Hindus. Hindus are being made aware of this ownership. It is being told that this is their area, and Muslims can live here only on their terms. This is the reason why hijab scares them. People of one religion are being intimidated by another religion to mobilize them politically. They are being explained that if they do not unite, they will perish. The Palestinian cultural theorist Edward W. Said, also known as Othering. Being prejudiced towards people because of religion, gender, socio-economic status.  Why is the Burqa called Regressive? There has been a long controversy over whether or not to wear hijab or burqa. Burke was called a 'portable exclusion' many years ago by American anthropologist and feminist Hannah Papanek. Seclusion means loneliness. His later generation anthropologist Leela Abu Lugod explains it in a way that the burqa actually works like a mobile home. He allows women to move freely in public places and among strangers.  Apart from this, it also does not mean that women's agency ends with this. In fact, the meanings of words like agency, choice and personality also differ in every society. Every society has its own way. Before raising questions on every method, one has to think from where it is being opposed. Women themselves are opposing it or men are deciding in their place.  There is also the question of Leela Abu Lugod that women are not always forced into clergy. Recent history is a witness to the fact that women have been forcefully exposed.  Syria's famous poet Mohza Kahf, in her essay 'From Her Royal Body the Robb Was Removed', has described how in the twentieth century governments in countries like Turkey, Syria and Iran humiliated women in the name of modernity. Instead of punishing him for not being under a veil in public, he was punished for being veiled.  Women were exposed at gunpoint so that the government could describe itself as progressive and secular. That is, wearing or not wearing hijab or burqa, in both cases women became political weapons. The freedom of women to choose themselves was in danger. As Kahf writes, the presence of the veil does not take away the power of women, nor does her absence take away that power. This strength comes from the fact that they have got economic, political and family rights. That is, hijab or burqa, in itself, is not an atrocity on women – tyranny is to keep women out of social, political and economic agencies. That is, by not letting them study in schools, or teaching in isolation, their power, agency is being taken away. Otherwise, it is part of a longer conspiracy, which is constantly deciding what will be served on my plate - what book will be in my cupboard - what will be the clothes on my body.

Hijab controversy: petitions of Muslim girl students were sent to a larger bench


Protests near schools, colleges in Bengaluru banned for 2 weeks amid hijab controversy

The Karnataka High Court on Wednesday, 9 February has decided to refer the petitions filed by Muslim girl students in the state to a larger bench. These girl students had claimed in their petitions that they were not being allowed to enter the colleges wearing the hijab row due to a government order. A bench of Chief Justice Ritu Raj Awasthi, Justice Krishna S Dixit and Justice JM Khaji of the Karnataka High Court will hear the petitions challenging the government rule on the hijab controversy on February 10.

Justice Krishna S Dixit said, "I feel that this matter requires consideration of a larger bench. The wisdom emanating from the judgments of the neighboring High Court should be treated
Let us tell you, the opponents and supporters of Hijab have come face to face in many educational institutions of Karnataka on this issue. In the last few days, many demonstrations have taken place in many districts including Shimoga of Karnataka in support and opposition to the hijab. During this, sporadic violence has also been seen.

New guidelines in Bengaluru amid controversy
Amidst the hijab controversy in Bengaluru, the Police Department has issued a new guideline. According to this, no gathering or protest will be allowed within 200 meters of the gate of schools, pre-university colleges, degree colleges or other educational institutions in Bengaluru. This guideline will be applicable for two weeks with immediate effect.

Attack on Hijab: On the plate, on the cupboard, on the clothes of the girls - understand the chronology
The debate on the hijab began in 1989 with the crackdown on some Muslim girls in French schools

Until recently, it was debated whether hijab and burqa were weapons of oppression of women. Does a piece of cloth raise questions about the existence of women? Hijab is the proof of what is called Lac of Agency in English. But the hijab controversy in Karnataka has turned the whole debate in a different direction.

Many school administrations in the state are full of hatred for this piece of cloth, the alleged weapon of oppression. Now here hijab is not just showing lac of agency. It has started creating fear in the public space. Or rather, fear is being created in public space through this.

Burqa controversy has a long history
The history of this dispute started from across the seven seas. In 1989, a debate broke out over the hijab in French schools. The controversy over the Islamic scarf or hijab began on September 18, 1989, when three girls at Gabriel Havez Middle School in Creel, northern France, were suspended from school simply because they refused to remove the hijab.

Between 1994 and 2003, about 100 middle and high school girls were suspended, or expelled, for wearing the hijab. Interestingly, in more than half of these cases, suspension or expulsion from school was invalidated by French courts. Still the series continued.

At present, many countries in Europe have banned facial coverings in public spaces. In Switzerland, through a law in March 2021, facial coverings have been banned in public spaces. This new law has been brought with the consent of the common people, which is led by a right-wing organization there. Apart from this, Denmark, Netherlands and Austria have imposed similar restrictions.

Threat of 'Islamic separatism'?
The special thing is that the manner in which these restrictions have been brought is very dangerous. In October 2020, French President Emmanuel Macron brought a controversial bill. The government claimed that there is a fear of forming a 'counter society' of around 6 million Muslims living in France. This bill is being brought to control the dangers of 'Islamic separatism'.

We can see these restrictions in France by linking them to imperialist thinking, where women who live in veils become political weapons. This notion stems from ethnic superiority where Muslim women need to be 'rescued'. French imperialism had been advocating for a long time to 'improve' the lives of the people living in its colonies, to 'civilize' them.

What is hijab - fear or terror, decide first
But are these restrictions now only so full? This whole episode in India should also be seen from the fear that is being created about Islamic symbols. Since the attacks of 9/11 and the invasion of Afghanistan, the US government has instilled a different fear among people about Islam.

Since doing so was necessary to justify his every act. Now for some people the hijab is a weapon of repression, for others the threat of radical Islam. So, what is this after all - oppression or danger? In the meantime Muslim women get trapped. In the West, hijabi women are a 'foreign element', a 'other'. And BJP is promoting similar politics in India.

During the last eight years all Muslims have been threatened with going to Pakistan. Slogans have been raised regarding the alleged love jihad. They are being described as cow killers, terrorists. It is being told that they are planning to capture India by producing more children. They are threatening to build a mosque by destroying the temple. Saying three words, they leave their women.

That is, this fear of Muslims or Islam that has arisen in public space is an expression of the current politics of India. This expression clearly says that we will not allow Muslims to dominate Hindus. Hijab has become like a takeover, see Muslims occupying every public space.

In those public spaces which are owned by Hindus. Hindus are being made aware of this ownership. It is being told that this is their area, and Muslims can live here only on their terms. This is the reason why hijab scares them.

People of one religion are being intimidated by another religion to mobilize them politically. They are being explained that if they do not unite, they will perish. The Palestinian cultural theorist Edward W. Said, also known as Othering. Being prejudiced towards people because of religion, gender, socio-economic status.

Why is the Burqa called Regressive?
There has been a long controversy over whether or not to wear hijab or burqa. Burke was called a 'portable exclusion' many years ago by American anthropologist and feminist Hannah Papanek. Seclusion means loneliness. His later generation anthropologist Leela Abu Lugod explains it in a way that the burqa actually works like a mobile home. He allows women to move freely in public places and among strangers.

Apart from this, it also does not mean that women's agency ends with this. In fact, the meanings of words like agency, choice and personality also differ in every society. Every society has its own way. Before raising questions on every method, one has to think from where it is being opposed. Women themselves are opposing it or men are deciding in their place.

There is also the question of Leela Abu Lugod that women are not always forced into clergy. Recent history is a witness to the fact that women have been forcefully exposed.

Syria's famous poet Mohza Kahf, in her essay 'From Her Royal Body the Robb Was Removed', has described how in the twentieth century governments in countries like Turkey, Syria and Iran humiliated women in the name of modernity. Instead of punishing him for not being under a veil in public, he was punished for being veiled.

Women were exposed at gunpoint so that the government could describe itself as progressive and secular. That is, wearing or not wearing hijab or burqa, in both cases women became political weapons. The freedom of women to choose themselves was in danger.

As Kahf writes, the presence of the veil does not take away the power of women, nor does her absence take away that power. This strength comes from the fact that they have got economic, political and family rights. That is, hijab or burqa, in itself, is not an atrocity on women – tyranny is to keep women out of social, political and economic agencies. That is, by not letting them study in schools, or teaching in isolation, their power, agency is being taken away. Otherwise, it is part of a longer conspiracy, which is constantly deciding what will be served on my plate - what book will be in my cupboard - what will be the clothes on my body.
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