Parker Solar Probe takes first image of the surface of Venus

مسبار باركر الشمسي يلتقط أول صورة لسطح كوكب الزهرة في ظلام الليل، تمكنت كاميرات الجهاز من التقاط هذا التوهج الخافت الناجم عن الحرارة الهائلة المنبعثة من السطح.  قال بيان صادر عن مركز جودارد لرحلات الفضاء (Goddard Space Flight Center) التابع لوكالة الفضاء الأميركية ناسا، إن المسبار الشمسي باركر (Parker Solar Probe) تمكن من التقاط أول الصور الضوئية المرئية لسطح كوكب الزهرة. وقد كشفت تلك الصور عن وهج أحمر شديد الحرارة لسطح الكوكب، يشع من خلال "عباءة" من السحب السامة تلتف حوله.  وبناء على دراسة لتحليل هذه الصور، نشرتها دورية "جيوفيزيكال ريسيرش ليترز" (Geophysical Research Letters)، يتوقع العلماء أن يساعد هذا الاكتشاف على فهم المعادن التي يتكون منها هذا الكوكب الصخري الغامض بشكل أفضل، ومعرفة المزيد عن جيولوجيا الزهرة، وعن تطور الكوكب.  صور عميقة ووفقا لتقرير منشور على موقع "ساينس ألرت" (Science Alert)، فإنه غالبا ما تحيط بسطح كوكب الزهرة غيوم كثيفة تحجبه عن الأنظار، لكن خلال عمليتي التحليق الأخيرتين لمسبار باركر حول الكوكب، وباستخدام جهاز تصوير المجال الواسع (Wide-Field Imager for Solar Probe) "WISPR"، تمكن المسبار من تصوير الجانب المظلم من سطح الكوكب وبأطوال موجية من الطيف المرئي، وهو نوع من الضوء الذي يمكن للعين البشرية رؤيته، ويمتد إلى الأشعة تحت الحمراء القريبة.  وقد كشفت الصور المجمعة في مقطع فيديو عن وهج خافت من السطح يُظهر سمات مميزة مثل المناطق القارية والسهول والهضاب، وهو ما مكّن العلماء من النظر تحت الغلاف الجوي السميك لكوكب الزُهرة، وكذا رؤية هالة من الأكسجين في الغلاف الجوي حول الكوكب.  وقالت نيكولا فوكس مديرة قسم الفيزياء الشمسية في ناسا -في تصريحها الذي تضمنه بيان ناسا- "نحن سعداء بالرؤى العلمية التي قدمها المسبار الشمسي باركر حتى الآن، حيث إنه يواصل تجاوز توقعاتنا، ونحن متحمسون لأن هذه الملاحظات الجديدة التي تم التقاطها يمكن أن تساعد في تقدم أبحاث الزهرة بطرق غير متوقعة".  من ناحية أخرى، قال عالم الفيزياء الفلكية برايان وود المؤلف الرئيسي للدراسة وعضو فريق جهاز تصوير المجال الواسع (WISPR)، إن "الزهرة هو ثالث ألمع شيء في السماء، لكن حتى وقت قريب لم يكن لدينا الكثير من المعلومات حول شكل السطح، لأن رؤيتنا له محجوبة بواسطة غلاف جوي سميك"، ولكن "أخيرا تمكنا أن نرى سطح الزهرة بأطوال موجية مرئية لأول مرة من الفضاء".  وبحسب بيان وكالة ناسا، فإنه وبالرغم من قرب كوكب الزهرة نسبيا من الأرض، فإن من الصعب جدا دراسته، إذ يُعرف كوكب الزهرة باسم "التوأم الشرير" للأرض، فهو توأم للأرض من حيث التشابه معها في الحجم والكتلة والبنية والتكوين، إلا أنه شرير لأنه معادٍ للحياة بشدة ولا يصلح لها مطلقا نظرا لخصائصه الجيولوجية والمناخية.  فالأرض معتدلة ورطبة، بينما كوكب الزهرة جاف وربما بركاني، حيث يبلغ متوسط درجات حرارته السطحية 471 درجة مئوية. كما تمتلئ سماء كوكب الزهرة بالغيوم السميكة السامة التي تمطر حامض الكبريتيك، وبالتالي تجعل هذه الميزات من صعب التحقيق في خصائص الكوكب ودراسة غلافه الجوي عن قرب.   وبحسب تقرير وكالة ناسا، فقد تم التقاط أول صور لكوكب الزهرة بواسطة جهاز تصوير المجال الواسع في يوليو/تموز 2020، في الرحلة الثالثة لمسبار باركر، والتي تستخدمها المركبة الفضائية لثني مدارها بالقرب من الشمس.  كوكب الزهرة Venus المصدر: شتر ستوك 60584041كوكب الزهرة معاد للحياة بشدة ولا يصلح لها مطلقا نظرا لخصائصه الجيولوجية والمناخية (شترستوك) ويضيف بيان ناسا إن "الهدف الرئيسي من تصميم جهاز تصوير المجال الواسع، كان في البداية لغرض رؤية الملامح الباهتة في الغلاف الجوي الشمسي والرياح، لكن بعض العلماء اعتقدوا بعد ذلك أنهم قادرون على استخدامه أيضا لتصوير قمم السحب التي تحجب كوكب الزهرة أثناء مرور باركر بالقرب منه.  ويقول أنجيلوس فورليداس المؤلف المشارك في الورقة البحثية الجديدة والباحث في مختبر الفيزياء التطبيقية بجامعة جونز هوبكنز، إن "الهدف من استخدام جهاز التصوير الواسع كان في البداية هو قياس سرعة السحب التي تحجب رؤية الكوكب، لكن الجهاز تمكن أيضا من تصوير سطح الكوكب".  ويضيف أنجليوس "كانت الصور مدهشة للغاية لدرجة أن العلماء قاموا بتشغيل الكاميرات مرة أخرى خلال الرحلة الرابعة لمسبار باركر في فبراير/شباط 2021، حيث تمكن الجهاز من تصوير الجانب المظلم لكوكب الزهرة".  ويستطرد بيان ناسا في شرحه لكيفية التقاط صور سطح كوكب الزهرة، بأن الجهاز التقط نطاقا من الأطوال الموجية من 470 نانومترا إلى 800 نانومتر. وقد كان بعض هذا الضوء عبارة عن الأشعة تحت الحمراء القريبة -أطوال موجية لا يمكننا رؤيتها، ولكن نشعر بها على أنها حرارة- وبعضها يقع في النطاق المرئي، بين 380 نانومترا وحوالي 750 نانومترا.   وأضاف بيان أن الأطوال الموجية المرئية الأطول جدا، والتي تحد أطوال موجات الأشعة تحت الحمراء القريبة، تجعلها تمر، وبالتالي يضيع هذا الضوء الأحمر وسط أشعة الشمس الساطعة المنعكسة على قمم سحب كوكب الزهرة، ولكن في ظلام الليل، تمكنت كاميرات الجهاز من التقاط هذا التوهج الخافت الناجم عن الحرارة الهائلة المنبعثة من السطح.      Parker Solar Probe takes first image of the surface of Venus In the darkness of the night, the device's cameras were able to capture this faint glow caused by the immense heat radiating from the surface.  A statement issued by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center said that the Parker Solar Probe was able to capture the first visible optical images of the surface of Venus. Those images revealed an extremely hot red glow on the planet's surface, radiating through a "mantle" of toxic clouds wrapping around it.  Based on a study analyzing these images, published in Geophysical Research Letters, scientists expect this discovery to help better understand the minerals that make up this mysterious rocky planet, and learn more about the geology of Venus, and the evolution of the planet.  Deep pictures According to a report published on the "Science Alert" website, the surface of Venus is often surrounded by dense clouds that obscure it from view, but during the last two flights of the Parker probe around the planet, using the Wide-Field Imager for Solar Probe "WISPR", the probe was able to image the dark side of the planet's surface with wavelengths of the visible spectrum, a type of light that the human eye can see, and extends to the near infrared.  The collected images in a video clip revealed a faint glow from the surface that shows distinctive features such as continental regions, plains and plateaus, which enabled scientists to look under the thick atmosphere of Venus, as well as see a halo of oxygen in the atmosphere around the planet.  “We are pleased with the scientific insights that the Parker Solar Probe has provided so far, as it continues to exceed our expectations, and we are excited that these new observations that have been captured can help advance Venus research in unexpected ways.  On the other hand, astrophysicist Brian Wood, the study's lead author and a member of the Wide Field Imaging Instrument (WISPR) team, said, "Venus is the third brightest thing in the sky, but until recently we didn't have much information about what the surface looked like, because our view of it." obscured by a thick atmosphere,” but “we were finally able to see the surface of Venus at wavelengths visible for the first time from space.”  Evil planet According to a NASA statement, despite the relative proximity of Venus to Earth, it is very difficult to study it, as Venus is known as the “evil twin” of Earth, as it is the twin of Earth in terms of similarity with it in size, mass, structure and composition, but it is evil because it is hostile. It is not suitable for life at all due to its geological and climatic characteristics.  Earth is temperate and humid, while Venus is dry and possibly volcanic, with average surface temperatures of 471 degrees Celsius. The sky of Venus is also filled with thick, toxic clouds that rain down sulfuric acid, and thus these features make it difficult to investigate the properties of the planet and study its atmosphere closely.  According to a NASA report, the first images of Venus were taken by the Wide Field Imager in July 2020, on the third flight of the Parker Probe, which the spacecraft uses to bend its orbit close to the sun.  The NASA statement adds, "The main goal of designing the wide field imaging device was initially for the purpose of seeing faint features in the solar atmosphere and winds, but some scientists later believed that they could also use it to photograph the cloud tops that obscured Venus as Parker passed near it.  "The goal of using the wide imaging device was initially to measure the speed of the clouds that obscure the view of the planet, but the device was also able to image the surface of the planet," says Angelos Forledas, co-author of the new research paper and a researcher in the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University.  "The images were so amazing that the scientists turned on the cameras again during the fourth flight of the Parker Probe in February 2021, as the device was able to image the dark side of Venus," Angelius adds.  How was the surface of Venus photographed? In its explanation of how to take pictures of the surface of Venus, NASA goes on to say that the device captured a range of wavelengths from 470 nanometers to 800 nanometers. Some of that light was near-infrared — wavelengths we can't see but feel as heat — and some was in the visible range, between 380 nanometers and about 750 nanometers.  A statement added that the very longest visible wavelengths, which limit the wavelengths of near-infrared rays, make them pass, and thus this red light is lost amid the bright sunlight reflected on the clouds tops of Venus, but in the darkness of the night, the device's cameras were able to capture this faint glow Caused by the enormous heat emitted from the surface.

Parker Solar Probe takes first image of the surface of Venus


In the darkness of the night, the device's cameras were able to capture this faint glow caused by the immense heat radiating from the surface.

A statement issued by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center said that the Parker Solar Probe was able to capture the first visible optical images of the surface of Venus. Those images revealed an extremely hot red glow on the planet's surface, radiating through a "mantle" of toxic clouds wrapping around it.

Based on a study analyzing these images, published in Geophysical Research Letters, scientists expect this discovery to help better understand the minerals that make up this mysterious rocky planet, and learn more about the geology of Venus, and the evolution of the planet.

Deep pictures
According to a report published on the "Science Alert" website, the surface of Venus is often surrounded by dense clouds that obscure it from view, but during the last two flights of the Parker probe around the planet, using the Wide-Field Imager for Solar Probe "WISPR", the probe was able to image the dark side of the planet's surface with wavelengths of the visible spectrum, a type of light that the human eye can see, and extends to the near infrared.

The collected images in a video clip revealed a faint glow from the surface that shows distinctive features such as continental regions, plains and plateaus, which enabled scientists to look under the thick atmosphere of Venus, as well as see a halo of oxygen in the atmosphere around the planet.

“We are pleased with the scientific insights that the Parker Solar Probe has provided so far, as it continues to exceed our expectations, and we are excited that these new observations that have been captured can help advance Venus research in unexpected ways.

On the other hand, astrophysicist Brian Wood, the study's lead author and a member of the Wide Field Imaging Instrument (WISPR) team, said, "Venus is the third brightest thing in the sky, but until recently we didn't have much information about what the surface looked like, because our view of it." obscured by a thick atmosphere,” but “we were finally able to see the surface of Venus at wavelengths visible for the first time from space.”

Evil planet
According to a NASA statement, despite the relative proximity of Venus to Earth, it is very difficult to study it, as Venus is known as the “evil twin” of Earth, as it is the twin of Earth in terms of similarity with it in size, mass, structure and composition, but it is evil because it is hostile. It is not suitable for life at all due to its geological and climatic characteristics.

Earth is temperate and humid, while Venus is dry and possibly volcanic, with average surface temperatures of 471 degrees Celsius. The sky of Venus is also filled with thick, toxic clouds that rain down sulfuric acid, and thus these features make it difficult to investigate the properties of the planet and study its atmosphere closely.

According to a NASA report, the first images of Venus were taken by the Wide Field Imager in July 2020, on the third flight of the Parker Probe, which the spacecraft uses to bend its orbit close to the sun.

The NASA statement adds, "The main goal of designing the wide field imaging device was initially for the purpose of seeing faint features in the solar atmosphere and winds, but some scientists later believed that they could also use it to photograph the cloud tops that obscured Venus as Parker passed near it.

"The goal of using the wide imaging device was initially to measure the speed of the clouds that obscure the view of the planet, but the device was also able to image the surface of the planet," says Angelos Forledas, co-author of the new research paper and a researcher in the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University.

"The images were so amazing that the scientists turned on the cameras again during the fourth flight of the Parker Probe in February 2021, as the device was able to image the dark side of Venus," Angelius adds.

How was the surface of Venus photographed?
In its explanation of how to take pictures of the surface of Venus, NASA goes on to say that the device captured a range of wavelengths from 470 nanometers to 800 nanometers. Some of that light was near-infrared — wavelengths we can't see but feel as heat — and some was in the visible range, between 380 nanometers and about 750 nanometers.

A statement added that the very longest visible wavelengths, which limit the wavelengths of near-infrared rays, make them pass, and thus this red light is lost amid the bright sunlight reflected on the clouds tops of Venus, but in the darkness of the night, the device's cameras were able to capture this faint glow Caused by the enormous heat emitted from the surface.
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