What you should know about investigating the crescent of Ramadan for this year and the date of the holy month

What you should know about investigating the crescent of Ramadan for this year and the date of the holy month  Many attempts were made in the past to unify the Hijri calendar, the most recent of which was the Istanbul Conference, which was held in May 2016.  With the advent of the month of Ramadan every year, many questions are asked in Arab and Islamic countries about the beginning of the holy month, how to observe the crescent and the timing of that. Here are the most important things you should know about the crescent of Ramadan for this year.  How does the crescent appear?  It is known that the Moon follows the Earth and revolves around it in an apparent movement that takes about 29.5 days, and it can be observed by delaying its daily sunset by about 50 minutes.  As a result, it appears in different phases, so it appears to the viewer at the beginning of the lunar month as a thin crescent after sunset, then it develops into a square and convexity until it is complete in the form of a full moon, before it recedes in its phases until it becomes a decreasing crescent at the end of the month, and disappears from view due to its alignment with the sun. .  The phases of the moon, from a thin crescent at the beginning of the month to a full moon and then receding until it becomes like the old limp at the end of the month (Pixehir) During the last phase, the central conjunction - or New Moon - occurs when the Earth, Moon and Sun line up on one line, followed by the birth of the crescent moon and the beginning of the new lunar cycle.  What are the basic conditions for monitoring the crescent of Ramadan? Ammar Al-Sakji, head of the Jordanian Astronomical Society, said in a special statement to Al-Jazeera Net that "there must be basic conditions for adopting the crescent of the new Hijri month, such as the occurrence of the central conjunction, which is a cosmic event around which astronomers do not differ, then the sunset of the moon after sunset and the sighting of the crescent after sunset, and that According to the conditions and criteria set by the jurists.  In addition to the astronomical calculation of the central conjunction and the setting of the moon after sunset, "there are standard secondary conditions for calculating the possibility of visibility such as the time between sunset and the moon, or the stay of the moon, the age of the moon and the distance of the center of the moon from the center of the sun in degrees as seen from the Earth (elongation), The height above the horizon, the thickness of the crescent, and the length of the crescent’s arc,” as Al-Sakji says.  Sun, Moon and Earth - Elongation The distance of the moon from the sun in degrees as seen from the earth (the elongation) must not be less than 7 degrees (the island) What are the criteria for seeing the crescent of Ramadan? According to a scientific paper authored by researchers Naguib Mahmoud Jarad and Batoul Onaizi Bandar from the University of Anbar, entitled “Finding a new equation for the probability of seeing the crescents of the lunar months,” the criteria used to monitor the crescents define the characteristics of the crescent that can be seen with the naked eye, the most important of which are 3: the age of the crescent, the duration of its stay, and its distance from the sun. The crescent age criterion represents the amount of time that extends between the moment of conjugation and the moment of sunset in a specific area. According to physical standards, it is almost impossible to see a crescent that is less than 16 hours old with the naked eye.  As for the criterion for the stay of the crescent, it specifies the period between sunset and sunset of the crescent, and according to recent studies, it is very difficult to see the crescent with the naked eye if its stay is less than 30 minutes.  In addition, it is not possible to see the crescent unless it has moved away from the center of the sun so that the moon has become reflecting an amount of light that can be seen. Therefore, the percentage of illumination of the moon is also an important factor in the possibility of monitoring it. In 1936, the French scientist Danjon determined the minimum elongation with which the observer was able to view the crescent, and estimated it at 7 degrees.  When does the crescent of Ramadan appear for this year 1443 AH? Dr. Al-Sakji says, "If we apply all this to the next crescent of the month of Ramadan, we will find that the astronomical calculations for this year confirm that the central conjunction - the birth of the crescent of Ramadan - will be on Friday, the first of next April, corresponding to the 29th of Shaban 1443 at nine in the morning and 24 minutes Mecca time (6:24 UTC). Therefore, the astronomical entry of the new lunar month will be on Saturday, April 2, 2022.  When will the crescent of Ramadan be investigated in Saudi Arabia? According to the calculations made by the Jordanian Astronomical Society, it is expected that the crescent will remain after sunset on Sha’ban 29, 1443 AH, which corresponds to April 1, 2022 in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, about 17 minutes, and its age is about 9 hours and 11 minutes. As for Riyadh, the sunset time for the night of the Ramadan crescent sighting will be at 6:9 minutes, and the sunset at 6:24 minutes, so that its stay is 15 minutes and its age is about 9 hours. These conditions do not allow, as we mentioned, to see the crescent with the naked eye.  Sighting the crescent on Friday, the first of April, will not be possible in the Arab countries (International Astronomy Center) When will the crescent of Ramadan be investigated in some Arab and European cities? In Cairo, where the sun will set on Friday, April 1st, at 6:13 a.m., the age of this year’s crescent of Ramadan will be 9 hours and 49 minutes, and its stay will be 17 minutes. In Oman, the crescent moon will remain after sunset for 16 minutes, and it is 9 hours and 31 minutes old. In Tunisia, Algeria, Paris and London, Hilal Ramadan will stay 20 minutes after sunset on Friday, and his age has exceeded 11 hours.  Can the crescent of Ramadan be seen on the first Friday of April? Dr. Al-Sakji says, "Since the conditions for sighting according to known standards are not available on Friday, it is not possible to see the crescent in all countries of the Islamic world from east of the Greenwich line to the east of Russia."  On the other hand, according to the calculations conducted by the Jordanian Astronomical Society, the sighting of the Ramadan crescent will be possible with a telescope and “according to professional standard monitoring” in some cities of the world such as the Senegalese capital, Dakar, where the crescent’s stay will reach about 26 minutes and its age is 12 hours and 47 minutes, and the regions of the far west. In Africa, as well as in North American cities such as Washington, where the age of the crescent after sunset will exceed 17 hours and its duration is about 35 minutes. As for the second Saturday of next April, the crescent of Ramadan will be visible to the naked eye in all Islamic countries.  When will be the first day of Ramadan? According to Dr. Sufian Kammoun, President of the Tunisian Association for Astronomy, in an exclusive interview with Al Jazeera Net, the situation that the crescent will be in on Friday, Shaban 29, 1443 AH, is likely to lead to a difference between Arab and Islamic countries in determining the beginning of the blessed month of Ramadan, “The evening of the first Friday of Ramadan. Next April, the central conjunction will have occurred, but the sighting of the Ramadan crescent will not be possible. In this situation, each country usually relies on its own criteria despite the existence of the Istanbul Agreement that laid the groundwork for the unification of the Hijri calendar.  Based on the foregoing, it is expected that the Islamic countries that adopt the vision, with the benefit of calculating the beginning of the months in the Hijri calendar, will announce that the first day of Ramadan will fall on the third Sunday of next April. While the advent of the holy month for countries that rely on astronomical calculations to determine the beginnings of months, such as Turkey, will be on the second Saturday of April.  Is it possible to adopt a unified calendar? Several attempts have been made in the past to unify the Hijri calendar, the last of which was the Istanbul Conference that was held in May 2016. The participants from the jurists and astronomers, according to the website of the European Ifta Council, approved the adoption of a single international Hijri calendar based on the possibility of proving a unified view of the crescent in The world, whether it is with the naked eye or with observational devices, but without taking into account the difference in sights and in a way that does not conflict with any legal text or a definitive astronomical rule. According to this calendar, which has not been implemented to date in most countries, the first of Ramadan for this year will be on the second Saturday of April 2022.  For his part, Dr. Kammoun believes that "the adoption of a unified Hijri calendar is possible based on the first point from which the crescent was observed, and in this case the globe is divided into two regions, the region west of that point and considered to have entered the new month, and the region east of it awaits the next day." It is also possible, according to the Tunisian astronomer expert, "the Umm al-Qura calendar should be adopted by all Islamic countries, and the crescent should be observed from Mecca, in this case, to approve the entry of the new month."

Many attempts were made in the past to unify the Hijri calendar, the most recent of which was the Istanbul Conference, which was held in May 2016.

With the advent of the month of Ramadan every year, many questions are asked in Arab and Islamic countries about the beginning of the holy month, how to observe the crescent and the timing of that. Here are the most important things you should know about the crescent of Ramadan for this year.

How does the crescent appear?

It is known that the Moon follows the Earth and revolves around it in an apparent movement that takes about 29.5 days, and it can be observed by delaying its daily sunset by about 50 minutes.

As a result, it appears in different phases, so it appears to the viewer at the beginning of the lunar month as a thin crescent after sunset, then it develops into a square and convexity until it is complete in the form of a full moon, before it recedes in its phases until it becomes a decreasing crescent at the end of the month, and disappears from view due to its alignment with the sun. .

During the last phase, the central conjunction - or New Moon - occurs when the Earth, Moon and Sun line up on one line, followed by the birth of the crescent moon and the beginning of the new lunar cycle.

What are the basic conditions for monitoring the crescent of Ramadan?
Ammar Al-Sakji, head of the Jordanian Astronomical Society, said in a special statement to Al-Jazeera Net that "there must be basic conditions for adopting the crescent of the new Hijri month, such as the occurrence of the central conjunction, which is a cosmic event around which astronomers do not differ, then the sunset of the moon after sunset and the sighting of the crescent after sunset, and that According to the conditions and criteria set by the jurists.

In addition to the astronomical calculation of the central conjunction and the setting of the moon after sunset, "there are standard secondary conditions for calculating the possibility of visibility such as the time between sunset and the moon, or the stay of the moon, the age of the moon and the distance of the center of the moon from the center of the sun in degrees as seen from the Earth (elongation), The height above the horizon, the thickness of the crescent, and the length of the crescent’s arc,” as Al-Sakji says.

Sun, Moon and Earth - Elongation
The distance of the moon from the sun in degrees as seen from the earth (the elongation) must not be less than 7 degrees (the island)
What are the criteria for seeing the crescent of Ramadan?
According to a scientific paper authored by researchers Naguib Mahmoud Jarad and Batoul Onaizi Bandar from the University of Anbar, entitled “Finding a new equation for the probability of seeing the crescents of the lunar months,” the criteria used to monitor the crescents define the characteristics of the crescent that can be seen with the naked eye, the most important of which are 3: the age of the crescent, the duration of its stay, and its distance from the sun. The crescent age criterion represents the amount of time that extends between the moment of conjugation and the moment of sunset in a specific area. According to physical standards, it is almost impossible to see a crescent that is less than 16 hours old with the naked eye.

As for the criterion for the stay of the crescent, it specifies the period between sunset and sunset of the crescent, and according to recent studies, it is very difficult to see the crescent with the naked eye if its stay is less than 30 minutes.

In addition, it is not possible to see the crescent unless it has moved away from the center of the sun so that the moon has become reflecting an amount of light that can be seen. Therefore, the percentage of illumination of the moon is also an important factor in the possibility of monitoring it. In 1936, the French scientist Danjon determined the minimum elongation with which the observer was able to view the crescent, and estimated it at 7 degrees.

When does the crescent of Ramadan appear for this year 1443 AH?
Dr. Al-Sakji says, "If we apply all this to the next crescent of the month of Ramadan, we will find that the astronomical calculations for this year confirm that the central conjunction - the birth of the crescent of Ramadan - will be on Friday, the first of next April, corresponding to the 29th of Shaban 1443 at nine in the morning and 24 minutes Mecca time (6:24 UTC). Therefore, the astronomical entry of the new lunar month will be on Saturday, April 2, 2022.

When will the crescent of Ramadan be investigated in Saudi Arabia?
According to the calculations made by the Jordanian Astronomical Society, it is expected that the crescent will remain after sunset on Sha’ban 29, 1443 AH, which corresponds to April 1, 2022 in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, about 17 minutes, and its age is about 9 hours and 11 minutes. As for Riyadh, the sunset time for the night of the Ramadan crescent sighting will be at 6:9 minutes, and the sunset at 6:24 minutes, so that its stay is 15 minutes and its age is about 9 hours. These conditions do not allow, as we mentioned, to see the crescent with the naked eye.

Sighting the crescent on Friday, the first of April, will not be possible in the Arab countries (International Astronomy Center)
When will the crescent of Ramadan be investigated in some Arab and European cities?
In Cairo, where the sun will set on Friday, April 1st, at 6:13 a.m., the age of this year’s crescent of Ramadan will be 9 hours and 49 minutes, and its stay will be 17 minutes. In Oman, the crescent moon will remain after sunset for 16 minutes, and it is 9 hours and 31 minutes old. In Tunisia, Algeria, Paris and London, Hilal Ramadan will stay 20 minutes after sunset on Friday, and his age has exceeded 11 hours.

Can the crescent of Ramadan be seen on the first Friday of April?
Dr. Al-Sakji says, "Since the conditions for sighting according to known standards are not available on Friday, it is not possible to see the crescent in all countries of the Islamic world from east of the Greenwich line to the east of Russia."

On the other hand, according to the calculations conducted by the Jordanian Astronomical Society, the sighting of the Ramadan crescent will be possible with a telescope and “according to professional standard monitoring” in some cities of the world such as the Senegalese capital, Dakar, where the crescent’s stay will reach about 26 minutes and its age is 12 hours and 47 minutes, and the regions of the far west. In Africa, as well as in North American cities such as Washington, where the age of the crescent after sunset will exceed 17 hours and its duration is about 35 minutes. As for the second Saturday of next April, the crescent of Ramadan will be visible to the naked eye in all Islamic countries.

When will be the first day of Ramadan?
According to Dr. Sufian Kammoun, President of the Tunisian Association for Astronomy, in an exclusive interview with Al Jazeera Net, the situation that the crescent will be in on Friday, Shaban 29, 1443 AH, is likely to lead to a difference between Arab and Islamic countries in determining the beginning of the blessed month of Ramadan, “The evening of the first Friday of Ramadan. Next April, the central conjunction will have occurred, but the sighting of the Ramadan crescent will not be possible. In this situation, each country usually relies on its own criteria despite the existence of the Istanbul Agreement that laid the groundwork for the unification of the Hijri calendar.

Based on the foregoing, it is expected that the Islamic countries that adopt the vision, with the benefit of calculating the beginning of the months in the Hijri calendar, will announce that the first day of Ramadan will fall on the third Sunday of next April. While the advent of the holy month for countries that rely on astronomical calculations to determine the beginnings of months, such as Turkey, will be on the second Saturday of April.

Is it possible to adopt a unified calendar?
Several attempts have been made in the past to unify the Hijri calendar, the last of which was the Istanbul Conference that was held in May 2016. The participants from the jurists and astronomers, according to the website of the European Ifta Council, approved the adoption of a single international Hijri calendar based on the possibility of proving a unified view of the crescent in The world, whether it is with the naked eye or with observational devices, but without taking into account the difference in sights and in a way that does not conflict with any legal text or a definitive astronomical rule. According to this calendar, which has not been implemented to date in most countries, the first of Ramadan for this year will be on the second Saturday of April 2022.

For his part, Dr. Kammoun believes that "the adoption of a unified Hijri calendar is possible based on the first point from which the crescent was observed, and in this case the globe is divided into two regions, the region west of that point and considered to have entered the new month, and the region east of it awaits the next day." It is also possible, according to the Tunisian astronomer expert, "the Umm al-Qura calendar should be adopted by all Islamic countries, and the crescent should be observed from Mecca, in this case, to approve the entry of the new month."
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