Prostate cancer, its examinations and treatment Comprehensive guide

Prostate cancer, its examinations and treatment Comprehensive guide  The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. Prostate cancer occurs when cells in this gland grow out of control. What are the signs of prostate cancer? And what are its stages? What is the prostate exam? How is it going?  What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer originates in the prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system, and usually affects older men, and if the disease is detected early, the patient may suffer from limited and temporary side effects, according to the King Hussein Cancer Center in Jordan.  According to Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar, the prostate is a walnut-sized gland located below the bladder and in front of the rectum, and prostate cancer occurs when cells in this gland grow out of control, and if a cancerous tumor is detected in this gland early, it can be cured and cured.  Prostate cancer signs Many patients do not feel any symptoms and are diagnosed only if they do a blood test called a "prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test." Therefore, it is recommended to do early detection tests.  There are some symptoms that a number of patients feel, such as:  Frequent urination or problems urinating. Presence of blood in the urine. Back or leg pain. Loss of appetite and pain in the bones (if the disease spreads). Prostate cancer stages The first stage Cancer at this early stage is usually slow growing. The tumor is not palpable, includes half of one side of the prostate or even less, PSA levels are low, and cancer cells look like normal, according to the ACC Stages Manual, and parts of it are published on the site "cancer.net". .  The second phase The tumor is only in the prostate, PSA levels are medium or low, and stage II prostate cancer is small but may have an increased risk of growth and spread.  Second stage eh The tumor cannot be felt, it includes half of one side of the prostate or even less, the PSA levels are moderate, the cancer cells are well differentiated, this stage also includes larger tumors found only in the prostate, the cancer cells are still well differentiated.  Phase II B The tumor is only inside the prostate and may be large enough to be felt during a rectal exam, and the PSA level is moderate.  The second stage C The tumor is only inside the prostate and may be large enough to be felt during a rectal exam, the PSA level is moderate, and the cancer cells may be moderately or poorly differentiated (i.e. different from normal cells).  Third level High PSA levels or tumor growth occur, indicating cancer that is locally advanced and likely to grow and spread.  Third stage eh Cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate to nearby tissues and may also spread to the seminal vesicles.  Phase III B The tumor has grown outside the prostate gland and may have invaded nearby structures, such as the bladder or rectum.  Third stage C Cancer cells in a tumor look very different from healthy cells.  The fourth stage At this stage, the cancer has spread outside the prostate.  Fourth stage eh Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.  Fourth stage B Cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes, other parts of the body, or to bones.  Recurrent prostate cancer Recurrent prostate cancer is cancer that has returned after treatment, and it may return to the prostate area again or to other parts of the body. If the cancer returns, there will be another round of tests to find out the extent of the infection. These tests and examinations are often the same as those done at the time of the original diagnosis.  Prostate examination Prostate screening A test to look for early signs of prostate cancer The average age at which a prostate exam is recommended is 50, but some people may need to start screening as early as 45, and a prostate exam can't tell you for sure if you have cancer But an abnormal result means you may need a prostate biopsy, according to the Cleveland Clinic.  Prostate examination method In general, a prostate exam includes a PSA test (which measures the level of PSA in your blood) and a finger rectal exam.  Prostate specific antigen test PSA is a protein produced by the prostate gland. When there is a problem with the prostate gland, it secretes more PSA, and high levels of PSA can be a sign of prostate cancer.  Finger rectal examination According to the Mayo Clinic , during the exam, your doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum and feels the back wall of the prostate gland to see if there's enlargement, pain, lumps or hard spots.  Men should have their first prostate exam by age 50, and if you have a family history of prostate cancer you should consider getting your first prostate exam at age 45.  Normal level of prostate-specific antigen The researchers did not settle on a single normal level of PSA. Previously, a level of 4.0 ng/ml or higher meant more tests were recommended, usually a prostate biopsy. During the biopsy, the health care provider removed a small sample of prostate tissue to be tested for cancer.  However, health care providers now consider other issues along with your PSA level to decide whether or not to perform a biopsy, and your age, general health, family history, and health history are a factor in the decision.  Other tests to diagnose prostate cancer A biopsy of the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound to take a picture and biopsy of the prostate gland. CT scan of the pelvis and bone to look for spread of disease. Prostate cancer causes According to the UK's National Health Service , it is not known exactly what causes prostate cancer, but there are a number of things that can increase your risk, called prostate cancer risk factors.  Prostate cancer risk factors the age The risks increase as you age, and most cases are diagnosed in men over the age of 50.  Sweat Prostate cancer is more common in black men than in Asian men.  Family history Having a brother or father who developed prostate cancer before the age of 60 appears to increase the risk of developing it; Research also shows that having a female nearby who has had breast cancer may also increase the risk of prostate cancer.  Obesity Recent research suggests that there may be a link between obesity and prostate cancer, and a balanced diet and regular exercise may reduce the risk of prostate cancer.  Diet Research is ongoing on the links between diet and prostate cancer, and there is some evidence that a calcium-rich diet is linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer.  Prostate cancer risk About 1 in 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime. About 6 out of 10 cases are diagnosed in men age 65 or older, which is rare in men younger than 40, and the average age of men at diagnosis is about 66, according to the American Cancer Society.  The best methods for early detection of prostate cancer According to the American Cancer Society , prostate cancer can often be detected early by testing PSA levels in a man's blood. Another way to detect prostate cancer is a digital rectal examination. The doctor may place a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel for the prostate gland. These tests and the actual screening process are described in more detail in Screening Tests for Prostate Cancer.  The difference between prostate cancer and prostate enlargement An enlarged prostate, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, is the medical term to describe an enlarged prostate, a condition that can affect how you urinate, and it's not cancer.  Benign prostatic hyperplasia is common in men over 50 years of age. It is not cancer and does not usually pose a serious health threat, according to the UK's National Health Service.  Many men worry that an enlarged prostate means an increased risk of prostate cancer, but there is no need to worry.  The risk of prostate cancer is no greater for men with an enlarged prostate than for men without an enlarged prostate.  The cause of an enlarged prostate is unknown, but it is believed to be related to hormonal changes as men age.  The balance of hormones in your body changes as you age, and this may cause the prostate gland to grow.  Does prostate cancer affect females? The answer is not straightforward; First, the prostate is not part of the female anatomy, and there are a series of glands and ducts in the front of the vagina called "skein" glands, sometimes called the "female prostate".  These glands have some of the same characteristics as the male prostate gland. For example, they both contain prostate-specific antigen, BSA phosphatase.  It is possible to develop 'skin' gland cancer, which is sometimes called 'female prostate cancer'. However, this is extremely rare, according to a report in Medical News Today.  Prostate cancer treatment According to the King Hussein Cancer Center, treatment options for prostate cancer include:  Surgery In which the prostate is completely removed, it is the most common prostate cancer treatment.  Radiotherapy Radiation therapy is the use of X-rays, focused electron beams, or high-powered radioisotopes to kill cancer cells and shrink a tumor.  Chemotherapy Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be taken orally or injected into a vein. Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment, meaning that drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body and can kill cancer cells anywhere in the body, including the prostate.  Hormonal therapy It is known that prostate cancer cells grow with the help of the male hormone, and there are multiple ways to control the spread of cancer cells in the body by giving hormones that reduce the male hormone in the body, and thus reduce the growth rate of the spread cells.  Prostate Cancer Symptoms Prostate Cancer Infographic, Source: Primary Health Care Corporation in Qatar  Questions about chemotherapy for prostate cancer How long does chemotherapy need for prostate cancer? Chemotherapy is given in cycles of treatment followed by a recovery period. Usually, the entire duration of treatment with chemicals lasts between 3 to 6 months, depending on the type of drugs that are given.  When is chemotherapy given? Chemotherapy can be used in cases of recurrent or advanced prostate cancer, but it's not usually used to treat the disease in its early stage.  Cure rate for prostate cancer When detected early, the survival rate is high. For example, in the United States, the 5-year survival rate for people with prostate cancer is 98%. Also the 10-year survival rate is 98%.

The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. Prostate cancer occurs when cells in this gland grow out of control. What are the signs of prostate cancer? And what are its stages? What is the prostate exam? How is it going?

What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer originates in the prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system, and usually affects older men, and if the disease is detected early, the patient may suffer from limited and temporary side effects, according to the King Hussein Cancer Center in Jordan.

According to Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar, the prostate is a walnut-sized gland located below the bladder and in front of the rectum, and prostate cancer occurs when cells in this gland grow out of control, and if a cancerous tumor is detected in this gland early, it can be cured and cured.

Prostate cancer signs
Many patients do not feel any symptoms and are diagnosed only if they do a blood test called a "prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test." Therefore, it is recommended to do early detection tests.

There are some symptoms that a number of patients feel, such as:

Frequent urination or problems urinating.
Presence of blood in the urine.
Back or leg pain.
Loss of appetite and pain in the bones (if the disease spreads).
Prostate cancer stages
The first stage
Cancer at this early stage is usually slow growing. The tumor is not palpable, includes half of one side of the prostate or even less, PSA levels are low, and cancer cells look like normal, according to the ACC Stages Manual, and parts of it are published on the site "cancer.net". .

The second phase
The tumor is only in the prostate, PSA levels are medium or low, and stage II prostate cancer is small but may have an increased risk of growth and spread.

Second stage eh
The tumor cannot be felt, it includes half of one side of the prostate or even less, the PSA levels are moderate, the cancer cells are well differentiated, this stage also includes larger tumors found only in the prostate, the cancer cells are still well differentiated.

Phase II B
The tumor is only inside the prostate and may be large enough to be felt during a rectal exam, and the PSA level is moderate.

The second stage C
The tumor is only inside the prostate and may be large enough to be felt during a rectal exam, the PSA level is moderate, and the cancer cells may be moderately or poorly differentiated (i.e. different from normal cells).

Third level
High PSA levels or tumor growth occur, indicating cancer that is locally advanced and likely to grow and spread.

Third stage eh
Cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate to nearby tissues and may also spread to the seminal vesicles.

Phase III B
The tumor has grown outside the prostate gland and may have invaded nearby structures, such as the bladder or rectum.

Third stage C
Cancer cells in a tumor look very different from healthy cells.

The fourth stage
At this stage, the cancer has spread outside the prostate.

Fourth stage eh
Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

Fourth stage B
Cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes, other parts of the body, or to bones.

Recurrent prostate cancer
Recurrent prostate cancer is cancer that has returned after treatment, and it may return to the prostate area again or to other parts of the body. If the cancer returns, there will be another round of tests to find out the extent of the infection. These tests and examinations are often the same as those done at the time of the original diagnosis.

Prostate examination
Prostate screening A test to look for early signs of prostate cancer The average age at which a prostate exam is recommended is 50, but some people may need to start screening as early as 45, and a prostate exam can't tell you for sure if you have cancer But an abnormal result means you may need a prostate biopsy, according to the Cleveland Clinic.

Prostate examination method
In general, a prostate exam includes a PSA test (which measures the level of PSA in your blood) and a finger rectal exam.

Prostate specific antigen test
PSA is a protein produced by the prostate gland. When there is a problem with the prostate gland, it secretes more PSA, and high levels of PSA can be a sign of prostate cancer.

Finger rectal examination
According to the Mayo Clinic , during the exam, your doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum and feels the back wall of the prostate gland to see if there's enlargement, pain, lumps or hard spots.

Men should have their first prostate exam by age 50, and if you have a family history of prostate cancer you should consider getting your first prostate exam at age 45.

Normal level of prostate-specific antigen
The researchers did not settle on a single normal level of PSA. Previously, a level of 4.0 ng/ml or higher meant more tests were recommended, usually a prostate biopsy. During the biopsy, the health care provider removed a small sample of prostate tissue to be tested for cancer.

However, health care providers now consider other issues along with your PSA level to decide whether or not to perform a biopsy, and your age, general health, family history, and health history are a factor in the decision.

Other tests to diagnose prostate cancer
A biopsy of the prostate.
Transrectal ultrasound to take a picture and biopsy of the prostate gland.
CT scan of the pelvis and bone to look for spread of disease.
Prostate cancer causes
According to the UK's National Health Service , it is not known exactly what causes prostate cancer, but there are a number of things that can increase your risk, called prostate cancer risk factors.

Prostate cancer risk factors
the age
The risks increase as you age, and most cases are diagnosed in men over the age of 50.

Sweat
Prostate cancer is more common in black men than in Asian men.

Family history
Having a brother or father who developed prostate cancer before the age of 60 appears to increase the risk of developing it; Research also shows that having a female nearby who has had breast cancer may also increase the risk of prostate cancer.

Obesity
Recent research suggests that there may be a link between obesity and prostate cancer, and a balanced diet and regular exercise may reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

Diet
Research is ongoing on the links between diet and prostate cancer, and there is some evidence that a calcium-rich diet is linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer risk
About 1 in 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime. About 6 out of 10 cases are diagnosed in men age 65 or older, which is rare in men younger than 40, and the average age of men at diagnosis is about 66, according to the American Cancer Society.

The best methods for early detection of prostate cancer
According to the American Cancer Society , prostate cancer can often be detected early by testing PSA levels in a man's blood. Another way to detect prostate cancer is a digital rectal examination. The doctor may place a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel for the prostate gland. These tests and the actual screening process are described in more detail in Screening Tests for Prostate Cancer.

The difference between prostate cancer and prostate enlargement
An enlarged prostate, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, is the medical term to describe an enlarged prostate, a condition that can affect how you urinate, and it's not cancer.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is common in men over 50 years of age. It is not cancer and does not usually pose a serious health threat, according to the UK's National Health Service.

Many men worry that an enlarged prostate means an increased risk of prostate cancer, but there is no need to worry.

The risk of prostate cancer is no greater for men with an enlarged prostate than for men without an enlarged prostate.

The cause of an enlarged prostate is unknown, but it is believed to be related to hormonal changes as men age.

The balance of hormones in your body changes as you age, and this may cause the prostate gland to grow.

Does prostate cancer affect females?
The answer is not straightforward; First, the prostate is not part of the female anatomy, and there are a series of glands and ducts in the front of the vagina called "skein" glands, sometimes called the "female prostate".

These glands have some of the same characteristics as the male prostate gland. For example, they both contain prostate-specific antigen, BSA phosphatase.

It is possible to develop 'skin' gland cancer, which is sometimes called 'female prostate cancer'. However, this is extremely rare, according to a report in Medical News Today.

Prostate cancer treatment
According to the King Hussein Cancer Center, treatment options for prostate cancer include:

Surgery
In which the prostate is completely removed, it is the most common prostate cancer treatment.

Radiotherapy
Radiation therapy is the use of X-rays, focused electron beams, or high-powered radioisotopes to kill cancer cells and shrink a tumor.

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be taken orally or injected into a vein. Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment, meaning that drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body and can kill cancer cells anywhere in the body, including the prostate.

Hormonal therapy
It is known that prostate cancer cells grow with the help of the male hormone, and there are multiple ways to control the spread of cancer cells in the body by giving hormones that reduce the male hormone in the body, and thus reduce the growth rate of the spread cells.

Prostate Cancer Symptoms Prostate Cancer Infographic, Source: Primary Health Care Corporation in Qatar

Questions about chemotherapy for prostate cancer
How long does chemotherapy need for prostate cancer?
Chemotherapy is given in cycles of treatment followed by a recovery period. Usually, the entire duration of treatment with chemicals lasts between 3 to 6 months, depending on the type of drugs that are given.

When is chemotherapy given?
Chemotherapy can be used in cases of recurrent or advanced prostate cancer, but it's not usually used to treat the disease in its early stage.

Cure rate for prostate cancer
When detected early, the survival rate is high. For example, in the United States, the 5-year survival rate for people with prostate cancer is 98%. Also the 10-year survival rate is 98%.
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