Testosterone helps fight this cancer

Testosterone helps fight this cancer  Why are adrenal cancers more common in women, and why do they have a worse disease course? The answer is related to the role of testosterone.  This topic was raised in a study conducted by a team of scientists at the National Center for Scientific Research in France, and published on October 14, 2022 in the journal " Science Advances", and carried by the Uric Alert website .  The study was conducted on mice, and the researchers found that in male mice, the immune system recruited more immune cells known as macrophages, which can eliminate cancer cells.  They note that the development of aggressive adrenal carcinoma is rarely observed in male mice.  In contrast, the researchers found that in female mice, macrophages do not slow the growth of tumors, which eventually travel to other places in the body in what is called metastasize cancer.  Through molecular analyses, the researchers found that the recruitment of tumor-resistant macrophages depends on the hormone testosterone. After the hormone was administered to female mice, macrophages capable of eradicating tumor cells entered the fray.  On the basis of these findings, the scientists conducted another study using data on humans, which revealed the same difference in macrophage recruitment rates between men and women with adrenal cancer.  This finding points to the possibility of hormonal stimulation as a treatment for this type of cancer.  This development is important, because adrenal cancer is aggressive, and a person's 5-year survival rate is usually 30%.  What is testosterone? Testosterone is a sex hormone , and is the main male sex hormone, but it is also secreted by women, and it plays an important role in fertility, muscle mass, fat distribution, and red blood cell production.  Testosterone is a type of androgen produced primarily by the testicles in cells called "Leydig cells". In women, it is produced by the ovaries, but in a smaller amount.  What is the adrenal gland? The body contains two adrenal glands , one above each kidney. The adrenal glands consist of two parts:  -The adrenal cortex, which is the outer part, produces hormones called corticosteroids that affect and regulate the body's salt and water balance, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development. -The adrenal medulla, which is the inner part, produces catecholamines such as adrenaline, which increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body is stressed. -Adrenal cancer symptoms  According to the Mayo Clinic , signs and symptoms of adrenal cancer include:  Overweight. Muscle weakness Pink or purple stretch marks on the skin. Hormonal changes in women can cause increased facial hair, hair loss on the head, and irregular menstrual cycles. Hormonal changes in men can cause breast tissue to enlarge and the testicles to shrink in size. Nausea. Vomiting. Flatulence. Back pain. Fever. Anorexia. Losing weight without trying to do so.       Ugur Şahin weds Bushra: A vaccine that treats cancer may become available before 2030 تشغيل الفيديو Video duration : 02 minutes 00 seconds 02:00 Dr.. Osama Abu Al-Rub 10/17/2022|Last update: 10/18/202209:31 AM (Mecca) Scientists A. Ugur Sahin and his wife Ozlem Turici said that the technology of the Covid-19 vaccine based on the messenger RNA (mRNA) "mRNA" can be reused to help destroy cancer cells.  The World Health Organization says that cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and it claimed the lives of nearly 10 million people in 2020, or approximately one in every 6 deaths.  The most common types of cancer are breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancers. Many types of cancer can be cured if detected and treated early.  Two Turkish scientists in Germany give hope to humanity Thanks to a biotechnology company founded by Turkish expatriate doctors in Germany Ugur Sahin and his wife Ozlem Toraji, the two doctors outperformed in the race to find a vaccine against the Corona virus.  12.11.2020  Cancer is a general term that includes a wide range of diseases that can affect any part of the body, and other terms used are malignant tumors and neoplasms, according to the World Health Organization.  A distinguishing feature of cancer is the rapid generation of abnormal cells that grow outside their usual limits, and can then invade neighboring parts of the body and spread to other organs of it. The latter process is called metastasis, and widespread metastases are the most important cause of death from cancer.  Optimism about cancer treatment According to Shaheen and Torici, who co-founded BioNTech, the German company that has partnered with Pfizer to manufacture the messenger RNA-based Covid vaccine, they have made breakthroughs that have boosted their optimism about cancer vaccines in the coming years, according to the Guardian report .  Speaking on the BBC on Sunday, Professor Torricci described how messenger RNA technology could be reused so that a vaccine primes the immune system to attack cancer cells.  Asked when RNA-based cancer vaccines might be ready for use, Professor Shaheen said they could be available "before 2030".   How does the covid vaccine work? The Covid vaccine - developed by Biotech - works by transferring the genetic instructions of the harmless spike proteins found on the Covid virus into the body.   ADVERTISING   These instructions are taken up by the cells that produce the spike protein. These proteins, or antigens, are then used as "labels" to tell the antibodies in the immune system and other defenses what to look for and attack.  How will the Covid vaccine work to attack cancer? The same approach can be taken to prime the immune system to search for and destroy cancer cells, said Torrichi, chief medical officer of Biotech. Instead of carrying a code that identifies viruses, the vaccine will contain genetic instructions for anti-carcinogens, which are proteins on the surfaces of cancer cells.  The German company hopes to develop treatments for bowel, skin and other types of cancer, but significant hurdles lie ahead.  And the cancer cells that make up tumors can be packed with a variety of different proteins, making it very difficult to make a vaccine that targets all cancer cells and not healthy tissue.  Cancer treatment at our fingertips “We feel like curing cancer or transforming the lives of cancer patients is within our reach,” says Torrichi. "We are always reluctant to say we will get a cure for cancer. We have a number of achievements and we will continue to work on them," she added, according to a report in the Times .   Cancer vaccines will work similarly to the Covid-19 vaccine, teaching a person's body to make antigen molecules present in a tumor so that it can recognize and eliminate any cells left after surgery.  In June, Biotech presented results of an early trial of pancreatic cancer patients at the American Society of Clinical Oncology conference in Chicago. Half of the 16 patients who received the vaccine were cancer-free after 18 months. There was no response in the other eight, and 6 died of cancer recurrences.  However, there are hurdles to overcome, for example the fact that cancer cells suppress the immune system, and some conventional cancer treatments do the same. This can make it difficult to rely on the immune system to "learn" from the vaccine and fight cancer.  However, 3 years ago, the idea of ​​producing a vaccine against a new virus within months seemed close to fiction, and we hope that the fantasy will come true with cancer treatment as it was achieved with Corona vaccines.   What are the causes of cancer? The World Health Organization says that cancer arises from the transformation of normal cells to other tumors in a multi-stage process that generally develops from a precancerous lesion to a malignant tumor, and these changes are caused by the interaction between a person’s genetic factors and 3 categories of external factors, including the following:  Carcinogenic physical agents, such as ultraviolet radiation and ionizing radiation.   Chemical carcinogens, such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, liquor, aflatoxin (a food pollutant) and arsenic (a pollutant in drinking water), and biological carcinogens, such as infections caused by certain viruses, bacteria or parasites.  The most common type of cancer Here are the most common types of cancer in 2020 (in terms of new cancer cases): Breast cancer (2.26 million cases) Lung cancer (2.21 million cases) Colorectal cancer (1.93 million cases) Prostate cancer (1.41 million cases) Skin cancer (other than melanoma) (1.20 million cases) Stomach cancer (1.09 million cases). Here are the most common causes of death from cancer in 2020: lung (1.80 million deaths) Colorectal (916,000 deaths) Liver (830,000 deaths) stomach (769,000 deaths) breast (685,000 deaths).   Testicular cancer, Is it related to professional football?  After monitoring 4 cases of testicular cancer in the German League (Bundesliga), questions were raised whether there is a link between professional football and infection with this disease, or is it just a coincidence?  The fact that the German capital club, Hertha Berlin, announced the fourth testicular cancer case in the German League (Bundesliga) this year, shocked the world of the round witch in Germany, as well as attracting a lot of attention, according to Deutsche Welle.  Announcing his illness, Dutch winger Jean-Paul Botius joined teammate Marco Richter, Union Berlin player Timo Baumgartel and Borussia Dortmund striker Sebastian Haller, who were diagnosed with testicular cancer this year.  Richter and Baumgartel recovered from the disease and returned to the green rectangle, and Botius and Haller are still on their way to recovery.  It was not just about the state of shock, but the injuries raised questions about whether there is a link between testicular cancer and professional football? Or is it just a coincidence?  Accidental In an interview with Deutsche Welle, German sports doctor Wilhelm Bloch said that these injuries "could be a coincidence".  Bloch is a weighty name in the field of sports medicine in Germany. He has conducted research on cancer and sports for many years and is currently working at the German Sports University in Cologne.  "Most scientific studies show that there are not many cases of infection" of the disease, Bloch added, adding that testicular cancer affects men most often at an early age.  It is noteworthy that the number of annual cases of testicular cancer in Germany is 4 thousand, and the disease is more common among adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years.  There is no scientific evidence "There is no scientific evidence yet that the disease is more common among young athletes," Bloch said. He added that there are other factors that may be linked to the matter, such as the fact that young people who are over one meter and 82 centimeters in height are more likely to develop testicular cancer, noting that "it could be related to their growth and muscular system."  Doctors also say that hormones play a role in this disease, and Bloch stresses that the cause of testicular cancer has not yet been determined.  Cycling has been the subject of investigation by practical studies to determine a link between its exercise and testicular cancer.  In this regard, Bloch said, "Sitting on a bicycle seat puts pressure on the testicles that may lead to minor injuries, but even in the case of cycling, it was not possible to determine the occurrence of many injuries" to testicular cancer.  What about prevention? Bloch believes that more attention should be paid to other factors that may cause testicular cancer, adding that "body temperature (may attract attention) is a bit, as athletes often reach temperatures that most normal people do not."  He said that intense exercise may alter the balance of hormones within the athletes' body, and genetic factors may also play a role in the disease in young athletes.  Bloch pointed out that scientists have not yet been able to find a way to prevent testicular cancer, but it does not mean a bleak picture about the disease.  In that, Bloch said, "Testicular tumors are called germ cell tumors, and this means that they can be easily treated, especially when the disease is diagnosed early, as athletes who have this disease can return to the stadiums quickly."  Anxiety state Although there is no procedure that has linked testicular disease to professional football, there is a state of concern among the players and stars of the German League.  In an interview with Deutsche Welle, Bayer Leverkusen team doctor Karl-Heinrich Dietmar said that the players "are concerned at the moment and are sensitive to this problem, and this is the reason why many players take the initiative to conduct medical examinations." He added that testicular cancer is not a "rare tumor that affects young people."  It is worth noting that the players undergo regular medical examinations, but the examinations imposed by the German Football Association do not routinely include urological examinations.  In this context, Dittmar said, "In Leverkusen, we perform the usual MRI that shows the areas of the pelvis and thighs, where the testicles can be seen, and then detect anything abnormal, and any change in the blood may indicate infection and this can be determined through blood tests." . "The tests we are doing are enough, because the blood data we get is very sensitive," he added.  Since Dietmar started his work at Leverkusen in 2002, no testicular cancer has been detected, and he believes that the incidence of this disease in the German League is still low to say that there is a link between the disease and professional football. "It's just a coincidence, but that doesn't mean we can't continue to be very careful in the future," he said.

Why are adrenal cancers more common in women, and why do they have a worse disease course? The answer is related to the role of testosterone.

This topic was raised in a study conducted by a team of scientists at the National Center for Scientific Research in France, and published on October 14, 2022 in the journal " Science Advances", and carried by the Uric Alert website .

The study was conducted on mice, and the researchers found that in male mice, the immune system recruited more immune cells known as macrophages, which can eliminate cancer cells.

They note that the development of aggressive adrenal carcinoma is rarely observed in male mice.

In contrast, the researchers found that in female mice, macrophages do not slow the growth of tumors, which eventually travel to other places in the body in what is called metastasize cancer.

Through molecular analyses, the researchers found that the recruitment of tumor-resistant macrophages depends on the hormone testosterone. After the hormone was administered to female mice, macrophages capable of eradicating tumor cells entered the fray.

On the basis of these findings, the scientists conducted another study using data on humans, which revealed the same difference in macrophage recruitment rates between men and women with adrenal cancer.

This finding points to the possibility of hormonal stimulation as a treatment for this type of cancer.

This development is important, because adrenal cancer is aggressive, and a person's 5-year survival rate is usually 30%.

What is testosterone?
Testosterone is a sex hormone , and is the main male sex hormone, but it is also secreted by women, and it plays an important role in fertility, muscle mass, fat distribution, and red blood cell production.

Testosterone is a type of androgen produced primarily by the testicles in cells called "Leydig cells". In women, it is produced by the ovaries, but in a smaller amount.

What is the adrenal gland?
The body contains two adrenal glands , one above each kidney. The adrenal glands consist of two parts:

-The adrenal cortex, which is the outer part, produces hormones called corticosteroids that affect and regulate the body's salt and water balance, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development.
-The adrenal medulla, which is the inner part, produces catecholamines such as adrenaline, which increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body is stressed.
-Adrenal cancer symptoms

According to the Mayo Clinic , signs and symptoms of adrenal cancer include:

Overweight.
Muscle weakness
Pink or purple stretch marks on the skin.
Hormonal changes in women can cause increased facial hair, hair loss on the head, and irregular menstrual cycles.
Hormonal changes in men can cause breast tissue to enlarge and the testicles to shrink in size.
Nausea.
Vomiting.
Flatulence.
Back pain.
Fever.
Anorexia.
Losing weight without trying to do so.

Ugur Şahin weds Bushra: A vaccine that treats cancer may become available before 2030

Scientists A. Ugur Sahin and his wife Ozlem Turici said that the technology of the Covid-19 vaccine based on the messenger RNA (mRNA) "mRNA" can be reused to help destroy cancer cells.

The World Health Organization says that cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and it claimed the lives of nearly 10 million people in 2020, or approximately one in every 6 deaths.

The most common types of cancer are breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancers. Many types of cancer can be cured if detected and treated early.

Two Turkish scientists in Germany give hope to humanity Thanks to a biotechnology company founded by Turkish expatriate doctors in Germany Ugur Sahin and his wife Ozlem Toraji, the two doctors outperformed in the race to find a vaccine against the Corona virus.  12.11.2020

Cancer is a general term that includes a wide range of diseases that can affect any part of the body, and other terms used are malignant tumors and neoplasms, according to the World Health Organization.

A distinguishing feature of cancer is the rapid generation of abnormal cells that grow outside their usual limits, and can then invade neighboring parts of the body and spread to other organs of it. The latter process is called metastasis, and widespread metastases are the most important cause of death from cancer.

Optimism about cancer treatment
According to Shaheen and Torici, who co-founded BioNTech, the German company that has partnered with Pfizer to manufacture the messenger RNA-based Covid vaccine, they have made breakthroughs that have boosted their optimism about cancer vaccines in the coming years, according to the Guardian report .

Speaking on the BBC on Sunday, Professor Torricci described how messenger RNA technology could be reused so that a vaccine primes the immune system to attack cancer cells.

Asked when RNA-based cancer vaccines might be ready for use, Professor Shaheen said they could be available "before 2030".

How does the covid vaccine work?
The Covid vaccine - developed by Biotech - works by transferring the genetic instructions of the harmless spike proteins found on the Covid virus into the body.

These instructions are taken up by the cells that produce the spike protein. These proteins, or antigens, are then used as "labels" to tell the antibodies in the immune system and other defenses what to look for and attack.

How will the Covid vaccine work to attack cancer?
The same approach can be taken to prime the immune system to search for and destroy cancer cells, said Torrichi, chief medical officer of Biotech. Instead of carrying a code that identifies viruses, the vaccine will contain genetic instructions for anti-carcinogens, which are proteins on the surfaces of cancer cells.

The German company hopes to develop treatments for bowel, skin and other types of cancer, but significant hurdles lie ahead.

And the cancer cells that make up tumors can be packed with a variety of different proteins, making it very difficult to make a vaccine that targets all cancer cells and not healthy tissue.

Cancer treatment at our fingertips
“We feel like curing cancer or transforming the lives of cancer patients is within our reach,” says Torrichi. "We are always reluctant to say we will get a cure for cancer. We have a number of achievements and we will continue to work on them," she added, according to a report in the Times .

Cancer vaccines will work similarly to the Covid-19 vaccine, teaching a person's body to make antigen molecules present in a tumor so that it can recognize and eliminate any cells left after surgery.

In June, Biotech presented results of an early trial of pancreatic cancer patients at the American Society of Clinical Oncology conference in Chicago. Half of the 16 patients who received the vaccine were cancer-free after 18 months. There was no response in the other eight, and 6 died of cancer recurrences.

However, there are hurdles to overcome, for example the fact that cancer cells suppress the immune system, and some conventional cancer treatments do the same. This can make it difficult to rely on the immune system to "learn" from the vaccine and fight cancer.

However, 3 years ago, the idea of ​​producing a vaccine against a new virus within months seemed close to fiction, and we hope that the fantasy will come true with cancer treatment as it was achieved with Corona vaccines.

What are the causes of cancer?
The World Health Organization says that cancer arises from the transformation of normal cells to other tumors in a multi-stage process that generally develops from a precancerous lesion to a malignant tumor, and these changes are caused by the interaction between a person’s genetic factors and 3 categories of external factors, including the following:

Carcinogenic physical agents, such as ultraviolet radiation and ionizing radiation.

Chemical carcinogens, such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, liquor, aflatoxin (a food pollutant) and arsenic (a pollutant in drinking water), and biological carcinogens, such as infections caused by certain viruses, bacteria or parasites.

The most common type of cancer
Here are the most common types of cancer in 2020 (in terms of new cancer cases):
Breast cancer (2.26 million cases)
Lung cancer (2.21 million cases)
Colorectal cancer (1.93 million cases)
Prostate cancer (1.41 million cases)
Skin cancer (other than melanoma) (1.20 million cases)
Stomach cancer (1.09 million cases).
Here are the most common causes of death from cancer in 2020:
lung (1.80 million deaths)
Colorectal (916,000 deaths)
Liver (830,000 deaths)
stomach (769,000 deaths)
breast (685,000 deaths).

Testicular cancer, Is it related to professional football?

After monitoring 4 cases of testicular cancer in the German League (Bundesliga), questions were raised whether there is a link between professional football and infection with this disease, or is it just a coincidence?

The fact that the German capital club, Hertha Berlin, announced the fourth testicular cancer case in the German League (Bundesliga) this year, shocked the world of the round witch in Germany, as well as attracting a lot of attention, according to Deutsche Welle.

Announcing his illness, Dutch winger Jean-Paul Botius joined teammate Marco Richter, Union Berlin player Timo Baumgartel and Borussia Dortmund striker Sebastian Haller, who were diagnosed with testicular cancer this year.

Richter and Baumgartel recovered from the disease and returned to the green rectangle, and Botius and Haller are still on their way to recovery.

It was not just about the state of shock, but the injuries raised questions about whether there is a link between testicular cancer and professional football? Or is it just a coincidence?

Accidental
In an interview with Deutsche Welle, German sports doctor Wilhelm Bloch said that these injuries "could be a coincidence".

Bloch is a weighty name in the field of sports medicine in Germany. He has conducted research on cancer and sports for many years and is currently working at the German Sports University in Cologne.

"Most scientific studies show that there are not many cases of infection" of the disease, Bloch added, adding that testicular cancer affects men most often at an early age.

It is noteworthy that the number of annual cases of testicular cancer in Germany is 4 thousand, and the disease is more common among adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years.

There is no scientific evidence
"There is no scientific evidence yet that the disease is more common among young athletes," Bloch said. He added that there are other factors that may be linked to the matter, such as the fact that young people who are over one meter and 82 centimeters in height are more likely to develop testicular cancer, noting that "it could be related to their growth and muscular system."

Doctors also say that hormones play a role in this disease, and Bloch stresses that the cause of testicular cancer has not yet been determined.

Cycling has been the subject of investigation by practical studies to determine a link between its exercise and testicular cancer.

In this regard, Bloch said, "Sitting on a bicycle seat puts pressure on the testicles that may lead to minor injuries, but even in the case of cycling, it was not possible to determine the occurrence of many injuries" to testicular cancer.

What about prevention?
Bloch believes that more attention should be paid to other factors that may cause testicular cancer, adding that "body temperature (may attract attention) is a bit, as athletes often reach temperatures that most normal people do not."

He said that intense exercise may alter the balance of hormones within the athletes' body, and genetic factors may also play a role in the disease in young athletes.

Bloch pointed out that scientists have not yet been able to find a way to prevent testicular cancer, but it does not mean a bleak picture about the disease.

In that, Bloch said, "Testicular tumors are called germ cell tumors, and this means that they can be easily treated, especially when the disease is diagnosed early, as athletes who have this disease can return to the stadiums quickly."

Anxiety state
Although there is no procedure that has linked testicular disease to professional football, there is a state of concern among the players and stars of the German League.

In an interview with Deutsche Welle, Bayer Leverkusen team doctor Karl-Heinrich Dietmar said that the players "are concerned at the moment and are sensitive to this problem, and this is the reason why many players take the initiative to conduct medical examinations." He added that testicular cancer is not a "rare tumor that affects young people."

It is worth noting that the players undergo regular medical examinations, but the examinations imposed by the German Football Association do not routinely include urological examinations.

In this context, Dittmar said, "In Leverkusen, we perform the usual MRI that shows the areas of the pelvis and thighs, where the testicles can be seen, and then detect anything abnormal, and any change in the blood may indicate infection and this can be determined through blood tests." . "The tests we are doing are enough, because the blood data we get is very sensitive," he added.

Since Dietmar started his work at Leverkusen in 2002, no testicular cancer has been detected, and he believes that the incidence of this disease in the German League is still low to say that there is a link between the disease and professional football. "It's just a coincidence, but that doesn't mean we can't continue to be very careful in the future," he said.
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