Unprecedented armament Why did Europe increase its military spending to record levels? Unprecedented armament Why did Europe increase its military spending to record levels?

Unprecedented armament Why did Europe increase its military spending to record levels?

Unprecedented armament Why did Europe increase its military spending to record levels?  Spurred on by the ongoing Ukrainian war since late February 2022, Europe boosted its spending on its armies in 2022 by 13% compared to the previous 12 months, the largest increase in more than 30 years.  A study prepared by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute revealed that military spending in Europe in 2022 rose at an unprecedented rapid pace, as it reached, after the Russian invasion of Ukraine, levels not seen on the continent since the Cold War.  According to researchers in the field of global security, the increase in European spending on armies contributed to global military spending setting a record for the eighth time in a row, reaching $2.24 trillion, or 2.2% of global GDP.  Driven by the ongoing Ukrainian war since late February 2022, Europe has boosted its spending on its armies in 2022 by 13% compared to the previous 12 months. This increase is the largest in more than 30 years, and at the fixed dollar rate constitutes a return to the level of spending in 1989 with the fall of the Berlin Wall, according to Agence France-Presse.  European arms race Although the United States has played a major role in defending the countries of the European Union since the founding of NATO after World War II, there is no doubt that the Ukrainian crisis raging since Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014 is considered the main motive for European countries entering an arms race unprecedented in the decade. the last one.  While the shock of Russia's attack on Europe's backyard prompted European leaders to increase defense spending, most European countries in NATO are now approaching the organization's goal of all members spending at least 2% of GDP on defense. , with some countries such as Poland and the Baltic states spending much more.  Combined with deteriorating security on the continent and the changing dynamics of the United States amid its preoccupation with China, populist and nationalist movements have gained ground across Europe, driven in part by the perception that the continent is under threat from outside forces. Many of these movements have made increased military spending a central part of their platform, appealing to voters who view military force as a key aspect of national identity and security.  While recent statistics indicate that global military spending has risen again since the first decade of the twenty-first century, after a sharp decline in the nineties. While experts attribute the beginning of this upward curve to the huge Chinese investments in its military forces, and the subsequent developments following Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014.  There are also those who attribute the rise in global military spending to the exorbitant cost of technologically advanced weapons, as in the case of Finland, which last year purchased 64 US F-35 fighter jets.  Numbers and facts Total military spending in Europe reached about $480 billion in 2022, recording an actual increase by a third over the past decade, and it is expected to accelerate further during the next decade amid increasing tensions on the eastern border with Russia.  The study indicated that Ukraine alone has doubled its spending seven times to reach $44 billion, or a third of its gross domestic product, benefiting from billions of dollars in arms donations. At the same time, estimates showed that Russian spending on weapons increased by 9.2% last year.  According to Agence France-Presse, the United States' spending on its military force amounted to 39% of global spending, and China ranked second with 13%, and together they account for more than half of global military spending. The countries that follow them are Russia with 3.9%, India with 3.6% and Saudi Arabia with 3.3%.  As for Europe, Britain is the largest spender on arms in Europe, as it ranks sixth with 3.1% of global military spending, ahead of Germany, which recorded 2.5%, and France, with 2.4%. These figures include donations to Ukraine. European countries such as Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden have also boosted their military investments over the past decade.  What about China's neighbors?  In the east, US allies abandoned the peaceful policy they adopted over the past seven decades and began increasing defense spending and the remarkable mobilization of armies and weapons over the past few years, out of fear of Chinese ambitions in the region, in addition to threats regarding Taiwan.  In a dramatic development, Japan identified China as its main opponent in the Defense White Paper of 2019, announcing its entry into the arms race, strengthening its military capabilities and increasing its defense spending within the next five years, in an attempt to deter Beijing from war in East Asia, according to a lengthy analytical report by Reuters .  In a related context, Australia announced today, Monday, the largest reorganization of its military forces in decades, with the refocusing of its army strategy on deterring potential enemies away from its coast. While Australian Defense Minister Richard Marlis indicated that the decades-old strategy to protect territory "no longer fulfills what is required," pointing out that in the face of a stronger China, Australia will shift its focus to deterring enemies before they reach its borders, whether at sea or atmosphere or cyberspace, according to what was reported by the French Press Agency.          Newspaper: Scotland's new prime minister called Sunak for a new referendum on his country's independence  The "Daily Telegraph" newspaper reported that the new Scottish Prime Minister, leader of the Scottish National Party, Hamza Yusuf, called on British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak to authorize him to hold a new referendum on independence. According to the newspaper, Youssef expressed, during his first meeting with the British Prime Minister, his hope that he would "respect the democratic aspirations" of the Scottish Parliament and give him the powers to hold the referendum.  The first Muslim prime minister of Scotland The newspaper added that Sunak suggested to Youssef, in response to his request, to work to reduce the cost of living in Britain instead of holding a referendum on independence.  According to the same sources, the meeting was held at the office of the British Prime Minister at the Parliament headquarters, and lasted about 20 minutes.  It is noteworthy that the referendum on Scotland's independence from Britain took place in 2014. In it, 55% voted in favor of remaining within the United Kingdom.  The Scottish National Party is calling for a new referendum on Britain's withdrawal from the European Union.         French people "commemorate" Macron's re-election for a second term  A number of French cities witnessed spontaneous protest demonstrations on Monday, on the anniversary of French President Emmanuel Macron's re-election for a second presidential term, according to BFMTV. Several hundred demonstrators gathered in Paris in front of the city hall, as well as in the square near the Paris Theatre, in the "March of Empty Pots" in protest against Macron's policies, and chanted "Macron, resign!" Amidst the sounds of banging on pots.  A crowd of demonstrators, most of them young people, went to the "Gare de Lyon" train station to "receive" the Minister of Culture, Papa Ndiaya, who was returning from a business trip to Lyon, and there were skirmishes between demonstrators and the police.  Then the demonstrators dispersed and spread through the streets of the city, where they overturned rubbish bins and bicycles and set them on fire.  Hundreds demonstrated in Rennes, Nantes, Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg and Lille. Videos circulated on social media showed a crowd in Grenoble burning an effigy of the president.  In Lyon, where about 500 people demonstrated, according to law enforcement officers, police dispersed the demonstrators with tear gas.  Yesterday, France witnessed a total of more than 400 protest activities, according to the "Attack" association.  Macron was re-elected for a second term on April 24, 2022, after defeating right-wing leader Marine Le Pen by a narrow margin in the first round and obtaining 58.55% of the vote in the second round.  A study conducted by the BVA Center this month indicated that Macron's popularity had fallen to a record low due to the implementation of the country's pension reform.

Spurred on by the ongoing Ukrainian war since late February 2022, Europe boosted its spending on its armies in 2022 by 13% compared to the previous 12 months, the largest increase in more than 30 years.

A study prepared by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute revealed that military spending in Europe in 2022 rose at an unprecedented rapid pace, as it reached, after the Russian invasion of Ukraine, levels not seen on the continent since the Cold War.

According to researchers in the field of global security, the increase in European spending on armies contributed to global military spending setting a record for the eighth time in a row, reaching $2.24 trillion, or 2.2% of global GDP.

Driven by the ongoing Ukrainian war since late February 2022, Europe has boosted its spending on its armies in 2022 by 13% compared to the previous 12 months. This increase is the largest in more than 30 years, and at the fixed dollar rate constitutes a return to the level of spending in 1989 with the fall of the Berlin Wall, according to Agence France-Presse.

European arms race
Although the United States has played a major role in defending the countries of the European Union since the founding of NATO after World War II, there is no doubt that the Ukrainian crisis raging since Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014 is considered the main motive for European countries entering an arms race unprecedented in the decade. the last one.

While the shock of Russia's attack on Europe's backyard prompted European leaders to increase defense spending, most European countries in NATO are now approaching the organization's goal of all members spending at least 2% of GDP on defense. , with some countries such as Poland and the Baltic states spending much more.

Combined with deteriorating security on the continent and the changing dynamics of the United States amid its preoccupation with China, populist and nationalist movements have gained ground across Europe, driven in part by the perception that the continent is under threat from outside forces. Many of these movements have made increased military spending a central part of their platform, appealing to voters who view military force as a key aspect of national identity and security.

While recent statistics indicate that global military spending has risen again since the first decade of the twenty-first century, after a sharp decline in the nineties. While experts attribute the beginning of this upward curve to the huge Chinese investments in its military forces, and the subsequent developments following Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014.

There are also those who attribute the rise in global military spending to the exorbitant cost of technologically advanced weapons, as in the case of Finland, which last year purchased 64 US F-35 fighter jets.

Numbers and facts
Total military spending in Europe reached about $480 billion in 2022, recording an actual increase by a third over the past decade, and it is expected to accelerate further during the next decade amid increasing tensions on the eastern border with Russia.

The study indicated that Ukraine alone has doubled its spending seven times to reach $44 billion, or a third of its gross domestic product, benefiting from billions of dollars in arms donations. At the same time, estimates showed that Russian spending on weapons increased by 9.2% last year.

According to Agence France-Presse, the United States' spending on its military force amounted to 39% of global spending, and China ranked second with 13%, and together they account for more than half of global military spending. The countries that follow them are Russia with 3.9%, India with 3.6% and Saudi Arabia with 3.3%.

As for Europe, Britain is the largest spender on arms in Europe, as it ranks sixth with 3.1% of global military spending, ahead of Germany, which recorded 2.5%, and France, with 2.4%. These figures include donations to Ukraine. European countries such as Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden have also boosted their military investments over the past decade.

What about China's neighbors?

In the east, US allies abandoned the peaceful policy they adopted over the past seven decades and began increasing defense spending and the remarkable mobilization of armies and weapons over the past few years, out of fear of Chinese ambitions in the region, in addition to threats regarding Taiwan.

In a dramatic development, Japan identified China as its main opponent in the Defense White Paper of 2019, announcing its entry into the arms race, strengthening its military capabilities and increasing its defense spending within the next five years, in an attempt to deter Beijing from war in East Asia, according to a lengthy analytical report by Reuters .

In a related context, Australia announced today, Monday, the largest reorganization of its military forces in decades, with the refocusing of its army strategy on deterring potential enemies away from its coast. While Australian Defense Minister Richard Marlis indicated that the decades-old strategy to protect territory "no longer fulfills what is required," pointing out that in the face of a stronger China, Australia will shift its focus to deterring enemies before they reach its borders, whether at sea or atmosphere or cyberspace, according to what was reported by the French Press Agency.









Newspaper: Scotland's new prime minister called Sunak for a new referendum on his country's independence


The "Daily Telegraph" newspaper reported that the new Scottish Prime Minister, leader of the Scottish National Party, Hamza Yusuf, called on British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak to authorize him to hold a new referendum on independence.
According to the newspaper, Youssef expressed, during his first meeting with the British Prime Minister, his hope that he would "respect the democratic aspirations" of the Scottish Parliament and give him the powers to hold the referendum.

The first Muslim prime minister of Scotland
The newspaper added that Sunak suggested to Youssef, in response to his request, to work to reduce the cost of living in Britain instead of holding a referendum on independence.

According to the same sources, the meeting was held at the office of the British Prime Minister at the Parliament headquarters, and lasted about 20 minutes.

It is noteworthy that the referendum on Scotland's independence from Britain took place in 2014. In it, 55% voted in favor of remaining within the United Kingdom.

The Scottish National Party is calling for a new referendum on Britain's withdrawal from the European Union.








French people "commemorate" Macron's re-election for a second term


A number of French cities witnessed spontaneous protest demonstrations on Monday, on the anniversary of French President Emmanuel Macron's re-election for a second presidential term, according to BFMTV.
Several hundred demonstrators gathered in Paris in front of the city hall, as well as in the square near the Paris Theatre, in the "March of Empty Pots" in protest against Macron's policies, and chanted "Macron, resign!" Amidst the sounds of banging on pots.

A crowd of demonstrators, most of them young people, went to the "Gare de Lyon" train station to "receive" the Minister of Culture, Papa Ndiaya, who was returning from a business trip to Lyon, and there were skirmishes between demonstrators and the police.

Then the demonstrators dispersed and spread through the streets of the city, where they overturned rubbish bins and bicycles and set them on fire.

Hundreds demonstrated in Rennes, Nantes, Bordeaux, Marseille, Strasbourg and Lille. Videos circulated on social media showed a crowd in Grenoble burning an effigy of the president.

In Lyon, where about 500 people demonstrated, according to law enforcement officers, police dispersed the demonstrators with tear gas.

Yesterday, France witnessed a total of more than 400 protest activities, according to the "Attack" association.

Macron was re-elected for a second term on April 24, 2022, after defeating right-wing leader Marine Le Pen by a narrow margin in the first round and obtaining 58.55% of the vote in the second round.

A study conducted by the BVA Center this month indicated that Macron's popularity had fallen to a record low due to the implementation of the country's pension reform.

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