The most powerful explosion ever recorded in our planet's atmosphere! The most powerful explosion ever recorded in our planet's atmosphere!

The most powerful explosion ever recorded in our planet's atmosphere!

The most powerful explosion ever recorded in our planet's atmosphere!

It's been almost a year since scientists observed the brightest gamma-ray burst ever recorded, in an event known as GRB 221009A.  

Now, scientists say the "brightest ever" explosion managed to cause disturbances in the Earth's ionosphere, about 310 miles (498.89 km) above us.

The ionosphere extends about 50 to 400 miles (80.46 to 643.73 km) above the Earth's surface, and is where our planet's atmosphere meets space.

It plays a vital role in protecting the Earth from harmful radiation and in enabling wireless communications.

The new study was conducted by an international team of researchers led by Dr. Stefano Piersanti at the University of L'Aquila in Italy.

“The Earth's atmosphere is exposed to the influence of cosmic explosions that produce high-energy gamma-ray bursts,” the researchers say in their paper. “We report evidence of intense upside (about 500 km) turbulence in the ionosphere caused by a sudden large ionospheric disturbance.” ".

Previous studies have shown that GRBs are short-lived bursts of gamma-ray light, the most energetic form of light with the smallest wavelengths.

These explosions last from a few milliseconds to several minutes, and shine hundreds of times brighter than a typical supernova, and about a million trillion times brighter than the Sun.

GRBs were first discovered in the 1960s, and have since fascinated scientists around the world.

Astronomers believe that most GRBs occur when a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel, collapses under its own weight, and forms a black hole.

The GRB in question - 221009A on October 9 last year - had a duration of about seven minutes, but could have been observed for more than 10 hours after the initial detection.

It originated from the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, and traveled about 1.9 billion years to reach Earth.

GRB 221009A sparked several space-based X-ray and gamma-ray observatories, including NASA's Swift and Fermi satellites, as well as INTEGRAL operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).

Experts found evidence that "ionospheric turbulence" created a large variation in the electric field in the Earth's upper ionosphere.

The event is linked to GRB 221009A on October 9, suggesting a gamma-ray burst was the cause.

Astrophysicists have written in the past that the sheer force of GRBs could cause extinction-level events on Earth, by "sterilizing" the planet.

Fortunately, the chance of this happening is small, according to the European Southern Observatory.

The study was published in the journal Nature Communications.



A global crisis could lead to an outbreak of deadly fungi!

Scientists in Barcelona have uncovered a new hybrid fungus called C. orthopsilosis, which arose from two strains in a rare event called hybridization as a result of climate change.
The new super strain has acquired specific characteristics, such as infecting the human body, growing at higher temperatures, and resistance to antifungal drugs.

Scientists said the hybrid strain could become more common with rising temperatures and changes in ecosystem conditions, along with globalization and human activity, such as the extensive use of fungicides and antibiotics in agriculture.

Lead researcher Dr Toni Gabaldon, from the Institute of Biomedical Research (IRB Barcelona), said: “Our results show that hybridization - a process that has not received much attention so far - allows for the rapid acquisition of characteristics that allow human infection. Therefore, in fungi, this could be "The process is a shortcut to defeating a species like ours."

During hybridization, divergent genomes and alleles (an alternative version or form of a gene) are brought together in the same cell, promoting adaptation by increasing genomic plasticity.

Divergent genomes refer to the accumulation of mutations in populations of two or more ancestral species over time. Alleles are one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise through mutation and are found in the same place on the chromosome.

The scientists said in a statement: “Estimates have revealed that there are currently more than a million species of fungi, most of which are adapted to live at moderate or low temperatures in the soil, aquatic environment, trees, plants, and animals such as amphibians, fish, reptiles, and insects.”

One strain was identified within the hybrid fungus, which passed through the enriched membrane and cell wall-associated proteins, which could play a role in adhesion and pathogenesis.

The team shared in a press release that C. orthopsilosis is closely related to Candida auris, which is currently sweeping through American medical facilities.

The team said they believe C. Auris is also a hybrid that formed in the sea and jumped to humans in 2009.

Hundreds of outbreaks of this infection have already occurred around the world, with the mortality rate ranging between 30 and 60%.

Scientists suggest that it could be the first microorganism to become pathogenic due to climate change.

The study was published in  Nature .

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