How does your immune system fight disease? How does your immune system fight disease?

How does your immune system fight disease?

How does your immune system fight disease?

Pathogens, which come in the form of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi, attack the human body throughout the day, and the immune system prepares lines of defense to fight them.
The immune system carries out defensive operations through trillions of immune cells and specialized molecules in the body. The first line of defense is the physical barriers of the skin and mucous membranes. The second line is the innate system that forms phagocytes that devour invading elements.

Many chemical compounds also respond to infection and injury, move to destroy pathogens, and initiate tissue repair.

It includes the body's third line of defense, the adaptive defense system, which is a more specific final response, that is, it is generated in response to pathogens that the body has not seen before.

The body's internal defenses rely heavily on two types of aggressive cells: macrophages and natural killer cells. The main phagocytes are macrophages, where roaming macrophages move in search of infection and feed on microbes, and stationary macrophages live in organs, such as the liver and brain.

Antibodies and lymphocytes in the adaptive system can recognize millions of different pathogens, some of which do not exist in nature, and can distinguish between infected, cancerous or foreign cells in the organ.

The adaptive immune system makes the necessary antibodies and cells so that it can fight recurrent infections.  

So, as we face flu and cold season, know that your adaptive system is here for you: a highly specialized fighting force with a “memory” Fatal.



Diseases indicated by edema

Edema appears as a result of fluid retention in the body for various reasons, starting from following an unhealthy lifestyle and ending with serious disorders in the functioning of the body’s organs and systems.

According to Dr. Kamelia Tabeva, a specialist in endocrinology, preventive and anti-aging medicine, edema can appear due to a disturbance in the functioning of the cardiovascular, urinary, lymph nodes, endocrine and digestive systems.

She says in an interview with Gazeta.Ru: “Edema often appears due to venous insufficiency and heart disease - swollen veins (varicose veins). Heart diseases that cause the heart muscle to not contract to the required degree. By evening, swelling of the legs increases due to heart failure, and may be accompanied by a weak or irregular heartbeat or shortness of breath even during rest or when performing simple physical activity.

According to her, edema due to kidney disease can appear in the morning and disappear in the evening. But in the case of severe disturbances in kidney function, they can remain throughout the day, and are usually accompanied by paleness and dryness of the skin.

She says: “In the case of diseases of the lymphatic system, edema appears due to a disturbance in lymph flow. It often appears on the extremities, and the swelling increases in the evening and practically disappears in the morning or after rest.

Digestive system diseases, such as cirrhosis, cause fluid retention in the body. In addition, the liver does not produce enough protein, which leads to low blood pressure (colloid osmotic blood pressure). (Responsible for retaining water in the bloodstream), and when fluid is not retained in the bloodstream. As happens in the case of cirrhosis of the liver, the feet, legs, thighs, and abdomen in particular swell.”

The doctor points out that endocrine disorders, especially hypothyroidism, cause visible swelling in the face, which can increase and spread throughout the entire body. Thyroid problems are usually accompanied by distinct symptoms: drowsiness, severe weakness, memory loss, and others.
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