Mapping the atmosphere with the help of birds Mapping the atmosphere with the help of birds

Mapping the atmosphere with the help of birds

Mapping the atmosphere with the help of birds

Experts at NASA's Ames Center were able to map the atmosphere with the help of birds with sensors on their backs that allow studying the air above the open ocean.

In this operation, the experts used large frigate birds (Fregata major) that live on the islands of the tropical regions located in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans. The wingspan of these birds reaches 2-3 metres. Frigate birds usually fly at an altitude of 2-4 km, which makes them suitable for studying the boundary layer of the atmosphere in which many weather and climate processes occur.

It should be noted that the methods currently used in monitoring the atmosphere rely on ground measurements and remote sensing, but they are difficult to apply when it is necessary to collect data over a large area over the open ocean.

The frigate birds succeeded in carrying out this operation, which allowed scientists to obtain information about the atmosphere in different weather and times of day in the Palmyra Atoll archipelago, located in the Pacific Ocean south of the Hawaiian Islands.

According to scientists, the information collected with the help of these birds will help improve weather forecasting, climate change and air quality data.

Are dormant volcanoes dangerous?

Scientists at the Hungarian University of Budapest have revealed the danger of dormant volcanoes, which can erupt violently long after their activity has stopped.

The magazine Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology indicates that geologists at the university studied the Cumadol volcano (Cumadol), the youngest volcano in the Carpathian-Pannonian region in Romania, which is about one million years old, using data on the mineral composition and chemical composition to determine the conditions for the development of magma, and reconstruct Construct the structure of a magma reservoir, and explain why relatively recent Chumadol activity is mostly explosive.

Throughout the volcano's existence, there have been several long, quiet periods lasting from tens to hundreds of thousands of years. The most important period of volcanic activity was during the past 160,000 years, as the eruption of lava domes dates back to between 160 and 95,000 years ago, followed by a period of calm that lasted 30,000 years. After hibernation, Chomadol's activity became more severe.

It became clear to the researchers that the mineral amphibole (an important group of dark-colored silicate minerals), whose chemical composition varies greatly in Chomadol pumice, plays a major role in changing the behavior of volcanoes. They found that most amphiboles are an early stage of crystallization of water-saturated magma, as these igneous rocks rising from great depths contributed to volcanic eruptions.

The results of the study indicate that although there are no signs indicating the activity of the Chomadol volcano, it is not unlikely that it will activate quickly, within weeks or months if it is fed by hot, water-rich magma.
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