What do you know about the “ketamine” that led to the death of actor Matthew Perry?! What do you know about the “ketamine” that led to the death of actor Matthew Perry?!

What do you know about the “ketamine” that led to the death of actor Matthew Perry?!

What do you know about the “ketamine” that led to the death of actor Matthew Perry?!

An autopsy report issued by the Los Angeles County coroner revealed that the famous “Friends” star, Matthew Perry, died as a result of “acute effects” of the anesthetic drug “ketamine.”
Ketamine has become very popular as a treatment for depression and other mental health problems. 

Perry publicly acknowledged his long struggle with alcohol and drug abuse, but the report said he remained clean from them for 19 months, and little was known about his relationship with ketamine.

What is ketamine and is it legal?

It is known as a short-acting injectable narcotic, and can have hallucinogenic effects at certain doses. It also distorts perceptions of sight and sound, making users feel disconnected from pain and their surroundings.

Ketamine was developed as an anesthetic in the 1960s, and has been legal since 1970 for use in both humans and animals.

But the use of ketamine for psychotherapy remains unapproved and unregulated, although it is increasingly used off-label, to treat depression, suicidal ideation and chronic pain.

In 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a ketamine derivative called esketamine, in the form of a nasal spray, to treat depression.

“People should not be afraid to use ketamine if it is prescribed by their doctor and administered correctly in the health care setting,” said Dr. Gerard Sanacora, director of Yale University's Depression Research Program. 

Can ketamine be fatal?

Ketamine is rarely fatal, but an overdose can cause loss of consciousness and dangerously slowed breathing, according to the DEA. The medical examiner's office wrote that the amount of ketamine found in actor Perry's system was extremely high, comparable to a dose of anesthetic.

Side effects, such as high blood pressure, are rare and occur when taking very large doses.

Experts have warned, citing negative incident reports, that unsupervised use of the compound ketamine increases the risk of serious psychological reactions and health problems such as high blood pressure, respiratory and urinary tract problems that can lead to urinary incontinence.

Patients must undergo a full medical and psychological examination "to ensure that the treatment is appropriate for their condition."

What happens to your teeth as you age?!

Our teeth, like our bodies, are subject to age-related changes, so what actually happens to them over time, and how can we maintain their good health?
Experts revealed that the crown of the tooth is covered with a layer of hard enamel that surrounds the soft brown dentin, which protects the pulp in the centre. Enamel consists of fragile threads gathered in the shape of a disk that interact with light to make the teeth appear bright.

The dentin under the enamel makes up most of the tooth's crown and root, and is composed of collagen, minerals, water and proteins. The pulp also contains blood vessels and nerves that communicate with the rest of the body.

In the mineral dentin and collagen there are small interconnected tubes formed by specialized cells called odontoblasts, which settle around the pulp once our teeth are fully formed.

How do our teeth change as we get older?

Due to their inability to regenerate, our teeth become brittle and prone to breakage, especially those with cracked lines or large fillings.

Over time, the outer surface of the enamel thins to reveal relatively opaque dentin, which darkens as we age.

The dentin becomes dark because the collagen matrix hardens and shrinks, and the fluid in the tubes fills with minerals.

Food and drink particles fill tiny gaps and age-related micro-crack lines, which extend up and down the enamel to discolour and stain it.

Here are seven tips to avoid tooth loss:

1. Avoid solid objects 

Avoid using your teeth to open packages or grind very hard foods.

2. Chew evenly between the teeth 

If you are missing molars or premolars, food should be chewed very thoroughly so that the remaining teeth can be used.

Chewing can be supported by replacing missing teeth with bridges, implants or dentures.

3. Preserve enamel

Minimize further loss of enamel and dentin by choosing a soft-bristled toothbrush and good toothpastes.

Some whitening toothpastes can be abrasive, which can lead to roughness and erosion of tooth surfaces.

Exposure to acids in food (such as lemon or apple cider vinegar) or illness (reflux or vomiting) should also be limited where possible to preserve enamel and prevent erosion.

4. Enhance saliva

Saliva is important to enhance chewing, swallowing and speaking.

But the quality and quantity of our saliva decreases due to age-related changes in the salivary glands, as well as some medications prescribed to treat chronic diseases, such as depression and high blood pressure.

Talk to your doctor about medication options to improve saliva or manage reflux disease to prevent erosion.

5. Treating gum diseases

Aesthetically, treating gum disease reduces the shrinkage (receding) of the gums that typically exposes relatively dark tooth roots.
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