A Japanese study on Corona: The ghost Omicron strain is more dangerous than the original

دراسة يابانية حول كورونا: سلالة أوميكرون الشبح أخطر من الأصلية رقم التكاثر الأساسي لسلالة "بي إيه 2" أعلى 1.4 مرة من رقم التكاثر الأساسي لسلالة أوميكرون الأصليلة "بي إيه 1"  توصلت دراسة حديثة إلى أن سلالة أوميكرون الشبح "بي إيه 2" (BA 2) قد تكون أخطر من سلالة أوميكرون الأصلية، والمعروفة باسم "بي إيه 1" (BA1).  وقد قام باحثون في اليابان بإجراء هذه الدراسة، التي نشرت الأربعاء في مرحلة ما قبل الطباعة على موقع بيو أركيف bioRxiv، ولم تتم مراجعتها بعد من قبل علماء آخرين.  ما الفرق بين سلالة أوميكرون كورونا الأصلية وسلالة الشبح وفيروس كورونا نيو كوف إنفوغراف  وكتبت بريندا غودمان، في تقرير بموقع "سي إن إن" (CNN) أن فيروس "بي إيه 2" -أحد السلالات من فيروس أوميكرون- لا ينتشر أسرع من أوميكرون فحسب، بل قد يتسبب أيضا في مرض أكثر خطورة.   وتظهر التجارب المعملية الجديدة من اليابان أن "بي إيه 2" قد يكون لها خصائص تجعلها قادرة على التسبب في مرض خطير، مثل المتغيرات القديمة لكوفيد-19، بما في ذلك دلتا.  "الشبح" تفلت من مناعة اللقاحات ومثل أوميكرون، يبدو أن سلالة الشبح تفلت إلى حد كبير من المناعة الناتجة عن اللقاحات. كما أن "بي إيه 2" لا تستجيب لبعض العلاجات، بما في ذلك سوتروفيماب Sotrovimab، وهو الجسم المضاد أحادي النسيلة المستخدم حاليا ضد أوميكرون.  وعادة، قبل نشر دراسة في المجلات الطبية، يتم فحصها من قبل خبراء مستقلين. وتسمح المطبوعات المسبقة بمشاركة البحث بسرعة أكبر، ويتم نشرها قبل المراجعة الإضافية.  وكتب الباحثون في الدراسة أن رقم التكاثر الأساسي لسلالة "بي إيه 2" أعلى 1.4 مرة من رقم التكاثر الأساسي لسلالة أوميكرون الأصلية "بي إيه 1".   ورقم التكاثر الأساسي -ورمزه (R0) وينطق "آر نات" (R-naught) أو "آر زيرو"- يشير إلى متوسط ​​عدد الذين يتوقع أن ينقل الشخص المصاب المرض إليهم، فإذا كان لفيروس معين (R0) يساوي 3، فهذا يعني أن كل مريض سينقل المرض إلى 3 أشخاص آخرين.  وأظهرت تجارب زراعة الخلايا أن سلالة الشبح أكثر قدرة على التكرار (replicative) أو التكاثر في الخلايا الطلائية للأنف البشرية.  علاوة على ذلك، أظهرت تجارب العدوى باستخدام الهامستر أن "بي إيه 2" أكثر تسببا بالأمراض من "بي إيه 1".   وقال الباحثون "تشير تحقيقاتنا متعددة النطاقات إلى أن مخاطر سلالة (بي إيه 2) على الصحة العامة يحتمل أن تكون أعلى من (بي إيه 1)".  وقال الدكتور دانيال رودس، رئيس قسم علم الأحياء الدقيقة في كليفلاند كلينك في ولاية أوهايو الأميركية "قد يكون، من منظور الإنسان، هناك فيروس أسوأ من (بي إيه 1) وقد يكون قادرا على الانتقال بشكل أفضل ويسبب مرضا أسوأ".  هذا وقد استعرض رودس الدراسة لكنه لم يشارك في البحث.  "بي إيه 2" متحور بدرجة عالية مقارنة بكوفيد-19 وقالت مديرة المراكز الأميركية لمكافحة الأمراض والوقاية منها، الدكتورة روشيل والينسكي، إن المراكز تراقب عن كثب "بي إيه 2".   وقالت يوم الجمعة "لا يوجد دليل على أن (بي إيه 2) أكثر خطورة من (بي إيه 1)". وأضافت أنهم يواصلون مراقبة المتغيرات التي يتم تداولها محليا ودوليا، و"مراقبة البيانات الناشئة عن شدة المرض لدى البشر والنتائج المستخلصة من أوراق مثل هذه التي أجريت في ظروف معملية".  ويعتبر "بي إيه 2" متحورا بدرجة عالية مقارنة بالفيروس الأصلي المسبب لكوفيد-19 الذي ظهر في ووهان الصينية. كما أن لديه العشرات من التغييرات الجينية التي تختلف عن سلالة أوميكرون الأصلية، مما يجعله متميزا عن متغيرات ألفا (Alpha) وبيتا (Beta) وغاما (Gamma) ودلتا (Delta).  هل "بي إيه 2" نوع جديد؟ يجادل كي ساتو، الباحث في جامعة طوكيو الذي أجرى الدراسة، بأن هذه النتائج تثبت أن "بي إيه 2" لا ينبغي اعتباره نوعا من أوميكرون وأنه يحتاج إلى مراقبة عن كثب.  قال لشبكة "سي إن إن" إن إنشاء طريقة للكشف عن "بي إيه 2" على وجه التحديد سيكون أول شيء يتعين على العديد من البلدان القيام به.  ولدى سلالة بي إيه.2 طفرات جينية يشعر الباحثون بالقلق من أنها قد تجعل التعرف عليها أكثر صعوبة مقارنة بسلالة "بي إيه 1".  والنسخة "بي إيه 1" من السلالة أوميكرون أسهل نسبيا في تتبعها من السلالات السابقة، ويرجع هذا إلى أنه لا يوجد بها واحد من 3 جينات يستهدفها اختبار تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل "بي سي آر" (PCR).  وليس في "بي إيه 2" (أوميكرون الأصلي) هذا الجين المستهدف المفقود. وعوضا عن ذلك، يرصدها العلماء بالطريقة التي رصدوا بها السلالات السابقة ومن بينها سلالة دلتا، بتتبع الخرائط الجينية للفيروسات المحالة إلى قواعد البيانات العامة.   وقد تم تقدير أن "بي إيه 2" معد بنسبة 30% أكثر من أوميكرون. ووفقا لمنظمة الصحة العالمية، تم اكتشافه في 74 دولة و47 ولاية أميركية.  مقاومة بالأجسام وحيدة النسيلة وجدت الدراسة الجديدة أن "بي إيه 2" يمكنه نسخ نفسه في الخلايا بسرعة أكبر من "بي إيه 1" النسخة الأصلية من أوميكرون. كما أنه أكثر مهارة في جعل الخلايا تلتصق ببعضها البعض. ويسمح هذا للفيروس بتكوين كتل أكبر من الخلايا، تسمى "سينسيشا" (syncytia) من "بي إيه 1".  وهذا مقلق لأن هذه الكتل تصبح بعد ذلك مصانع لإنتاج المزيد من نسخ الفيروس. وكانت دلتا جيدة أيضا في تكوين المخلوقات المخلوية، والتي يُعتقد أنها أحد أسباب وصفها بأنها مدمرة جدا للرئتين.   وعندما قام الباحثون بإصابة الهامستر بسلالة "بي إيه 2″ و"بي إيه 1" أصيبت الحيوانات المصابة بسلالة "بي إيه 2" بالمرض، وكانت وظائف الرئة أسوأ. وفي عينات الأنسجة، كانت رئتا الهامستر المصابة بسلالة "بي إيه 2" أكثر تضررا من تلك المصابة بـ "بي إيه 1".  وعلى غرار أوميكرون الأصلي، كان "بي إيه 2" قادرا على اختراق الأجسام المضادة في دم الأشخاص الذين تم تطعيمهم ضد كورونا.  وكان أيضا مقاوما للأجسام المضادة للذين أصيبوا بكوفيد-19 في وقت مبكر من الوباء، بما في ذلك ألفا ودلتا. وكان "بي إيه 2" مقاوما تماما تقريبا لبعض علاجات الأجسام المضادة وحيدة النسيلة.  نقطة مضيئة ولكن كانت هناك نقطة مضيئة، حيث يبدو أن الأجسام المضادة في دماء الذين تعرضوا لأوميكرون مؤخرا تقدم بعض الحماية ضد "بي إيه 2" خاصة إذا تم تطعيمهم أيضا.   وهذا يثير نقطة مهمة، كما تقول ديبورا فولر عالمة الفيروسات في كلية الطب بجامعة واشنطن والتي راجعت الدراسة، ولكنها لم تكن جزءا من البحث.  وتقول فولر: إنه على الرغم من أن "بي إيه 2" تبدو معدية ومسببة للأمراض أكثر من أوميكرون، فإنها قد لا تتسبب في موجة أكثر ضررا من عدوى كوفيد-19.  وتضيف "أحد المحاذير التي يتعين علينا التفكير فيها، عندما نحصل على متغيرات جديدة قد تبدو أكثر خطورة، هو حقيقة وجود جانبين للقصة: نظام المناعة لدينا يتطور أيضا، وهذا يؤدي إلى تراجع الأمور".  سباق ضد كورونا ومتحوراته في الوقت الحالي، كما تقول فولر "نحن في سباق ضد الفيروس، والسؤال الرئيسي: من في الصدارة؟   وتضيف "ما نريده في النهاية أن يكون المضيف متقدما على الفيروس. بعبارة أخرى: مناعتنا تكون متقدمة خطوة للأمام على السلالة التالية التي تظهر، ولا أعلم أننا وصلنا إلى هذا الحد حتى الآن".  لهذا السبب -تقول فولر- إنها تشعر أن الوقت لم يحن بعد للمجتمعات لرفع الأقنعة.  وتختم بالقول "كنا على بعد حوالي 10 أقدام من خط النهاية. إن نزع الأقنعة الآن ليس فكرة جيدة. إنها ستعمل فقط على تمديد الأمر. دعنا نصل إلى خط النهاية".      A Japanese study on Corona: The ghost Omicron strain is more dangerous than the original The basic reproductive number of the PA2 strain is 1.4 times higher than that of the original Omicron strain PA1.  A recent study has found that the stealth omicron strain BA 2 may be more dangerous than the original omicron strain, known as BA1.  The study, which was published Wednesday in preprint on bioRxiv , was conducted by researchers in Japan and has not yet been reviewed by other scientists.  What is the difference between the original Omicron Corona strain, the ghost strain and the Corona Virus New Cove Infographic  Brenda Goodman, in a report on CNN, wrote that the " PA2 " virus - one of the strains of the Omicron virus - not only spreads faster than the Omicron, but may also cause a more serious disease.  New lab experiments from Japan show that PA2 may have properties that make it capable of causing serious illness, such as older variants of Covid-19, including Delta.  'Ghost' escapes vaccine immunity Like Omicron, the ghost strain appears to largely escape vaccine-induced immunity. PA2 also does not respond to some treatments, including sotrovimab, the monoclonal antibody currently used against Omicron.  Usually, before a study is published in medical journals, it is examined by independent experts. Pre-prints allow research to be shared more quickly, and are published before further review.  In the study, the researchers wrote that the basic reproductive number of the "PA2" strain is 1.4 times higher than that of the original Omicron strain "PA1".  And the basic reproductive number - its symbol (R0) and pronounced "R-naught" or "R-zero" - indicates the average number to whom an infected person is expected to transmit the disease, so if a particular virus (R0) equals 3, This means that each patient will pass the disease on to 3 other people.  And more able to reproduce Cell culture experiments showed that the ghost strain was more capable of replicating or reproducing in human nasal epithelial cells.  Furthermore, hamster infection experiments have shown that PA2 is more pathogenic than PA1. "Our multiscale investigations indicate that the public health risk of PA2 strain is potentially higher than PA1," the researchers said.  "It may be, from a human perspective, that there is a virus worse than PA1 and it may be able to transmit better and cause worse disease," said Dr. Daniel Rhodes, chief of microbiology at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, USA.  Rhodes reviewed the study but was not involved in the research.  PA2 is highly mutated compared to COVID-19 The director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dr. Rochelle Walinsky, said the CDC is closely monitoring PA2.  "There is no evidence that PA2 is more dangerous than PA1," she said on Friday. She added that they continue to monitor variables that are circulated locally and internationally, and "monitor data arising from disease severity in humans and findings from papers such as these conducted in laboratory conditions."  PA2 is highly mutated compared to the original virus that causes Covid-19, which appeared in Wuhan, China. It also has dozens of genetic changes that differ from the original Omicron strain, making it distinct from the Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta variants.  Is PA2 a new species? Kei Sato, the researcher at the University of Tokyo who conducted the study, argues that these results prove that PA2 should not be considered a type of omicron and that it needs to be closely monitored.  He told CNN that creating a method for specifically detecting PA2 would be the first thing many countries would have to do.  The BA2 strain has genetic mutations that researchers worry may make it more difficult to identify than the BA1 strain. The PA1 version of the Omicron strain is relatively easier to track than the previous strains, due to the fact that it does not have one of the 3 genes targeted by the PCR test.  PA2 (the original omicron) does not have this missing target gene. Instead, scientists monitor them the way they did previous strains, including the Delta strain, by tracing the genetic maps of viruses submitted to public databases.  PA2 has been estimated to be 30% more prepared than Omicron. According to the World Health Organization, it has been detected in 74 countries and 47 US states.  Monoclonal resistance The new study found that PA2 can replicate itself in cells more quickly than PA1 - the original version of Omicron. It is also more adept at making cells stick together. This allows the virus to form larger clumps of cells, called syncytia, than PA1.  This is worrying because these blocks then become factories to produce more copies of the virus. Delta was also good at creating syncytial creatures, which is thought to be one reason why they are described as so destructive to the lungs.  When the researchers infected hamsters with BA2 and BA1, the animals infected with BA2 became sick and had worse lung function.In tissue samples, the lungs of hamsters infected with BA2 were more damaged than Those infected with PA1.  Similar to the original Omicron, PA2 was able to penetrate the antibodies into the blood of people who had been vaccinated against corona.  It was also resistant to the antibodies of those infected with COVID-19 early in the epidemic, including alpha and delta. PA2 was almost completely resistant to some monoclonal antibody treatments.  Bright spot But there was a bright spot, as it appears that antibodies in the blood of those recently exposed to Omicron offer some protection against PA2, especially if they have also been vaccinated.  This raises an important point, says Deborah Fuller, a virologist at the University of Washington School of Medicine who reviewed the study, but was not part of the research.  Fuller says that although PA2 appears to be more contagious and pathogenic than Omicron, it may not cause a more harmful wave of Covid-19 infection.  "One caveat that we have to think about, when we get new variants that may seem more dangerous, is the fact that there are two sides of the story: our immune system is developing as well, and that makes things go backwards."  A race against Corona and its variants Right now, says Fuller, "we're in a race against the virus, and the main question is: Who's on top?   "What we ultimately want is for the host to be ahead of the virus. In other words: our immunity is one step ahead of the next strain that emerges, and I don't know we've come that far yet."  That's why, Fuller says, she feels it's not yet time for communities to lift the masks.  "We were about 10 feet from the finish line. It's not a good idea to take the masks off now. It's just going to extend it. Let's get to the finish line."

A Japanese study on Corona: The ghost Omicron strain is more dangerous than the original

The basic reproductive number of the PA2 strain is 1.4 times higher than that of the original Omicron strain PA1.

A recent study has found that the stealth omicron strain BA 2 may be more dangerous than the original omicron strain, known as BA1.

The study, which was published Wednesday in preprint on bioRxiv , was conducted by researchers in Japan and has not yet been reviewed by other scientists.

What is the difference between the original Omicron Corona strain, the ghost strain and the Corona Virus New Cove Infographic

Brenda Goodman, in a report on CNN, wrote that the " PA2 " virus - one of the strains of the Omicron virus - not only spreads faster than the Omicron, but may also cause a more serious disease.

New lab experiments from Japan show that PA2 may have properties that make it capable of causing serious illness, such as older variants of Covid-19, including Delta.

'Ghost' escapes vaccine immunity
Like Omicron, the ghost strain appears to largely escape vaccine-induced immunity. PA2 also does not respond to some treatments, including sotrovimab, the monoclonal antibody currently used against Omicron.

Usually, before a study is published in medical journals, it is examined by independent experts. Pre-prints allow research to be shared more quickly, and are published before further review.

In the study, the researchers wrote that the basic reproductive number of the "PA2" strain is 1.4 times higher than that of the original Omicron strain "PA1".

And the basic reproductive number - its symbol (R0) and pronounced "R-naught" or "R-zero" - indicates the average number to whom an infected person is expected to transmit the disease, so if a particular virus (R0) equals 3, This means that each patient will pass the disease on to 3 other people.

And more able to reproduce
Cell culture experiments showed that the ghost strain was more capable of replicating or reproducing in human nasal epithelial cells.

Furthermore, hamster infection experiments have shown that PA2 is more pathogenic than PA1.
"Our multiscale investigations indicate that the public health risk of PA2 strain is potentially higher than PA1," the researchers said.

"It may be, from a human perspective, that there is a virus worse than PA1 and it may be able to transmit better and cause worse disease," said Dr. Daniel Rhodes, chief of microbiology at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, USA.

Rhodes reviewed the study but was not involved in the research.

PA2 is highly mutated compared to COVID-19
The director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dr. Rochelle Walinsky, said the CDC is closely monitoring PA2.

"There is no evidence that PA2 is more dangerous than PA1," she said on Friday. She added that they continue to monitor variables that are circulated locally and internationally, and "monitor data arising from disease severity in humans and findings from papers such as these conducted in laboratory conditions."

PA2 is highly mutated compared to the original virus that causes Covid-19, which appeared in Wuhan, China. It also has dozens of genetic changes that differ from the original Omicron strain, making it distinct from the Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta variants.

Is PA2 a new species?
Kei Sato, the researcher at the University of Tokyo who conducted the study, argues that these results prove that PA2 should not be considered a type of omicron and that it needs to be closely monitored.

He told CNN that creating a method for specifically detecting PA2 would be the first thing many countries would have to do.

The BA2 strain has genetic mutations that researchers worry may make it more difficult to identify than the BA1 strain.
The PA1 version of the Omicron strain is relatively easier to track than the previous strains, due to the fact that it does not have one of the 3 genes targeted by the PCR test.

PA2 (the original omicron) does not have this missing target gene. Instead, scientists monitor them the way they did previous strains, including the Delta strain, by tracing the genetic maps of viruses submitted to public databases.

PA2 has been estimated to be 30% more prepared than Omicron. According to the World Health Organization, it has been detected in 74 countries and 47 US states.

Monoclonal resistance
The new study found that PA2 can replicate itself in cells more quickly than PA1 - the original version of Omicron. It is also more adept at making cells stick together. This allows the virus to form larger clumps of cells, called syncytia, than PA1.

This is worrying because these blocks then become factories to produce more copies of the virus. Delta was also good at creating syncytial creatures, which is thought to be one reason why they are described as so destructive to the lungs.

When the researchers infected hamsters with BA2 and BA1, the animals infected with BA2 became sick and had worse lung function.In tissue samples, the lungs of hamsters infected with BA2 were more damaged than Those infected with PA1.

Similar to the original Omicron, PA2 was able to penetrate the antibodies into the blood of people who had been vaccinated against corona.

It was also resistant to the antibodies of those infected with COVID-19 early in the epidemic, including alpha and delta. PA2 was almost completely resistant to some monoclonal antibody treatments.

Bright spot
But there was a bright spot, as it appears that antibodies in the blood of those recently exposed to Omicron offer some protection against PA2, especially if they have also been vaccinated.

This raises an important point, says Deborah Fuller, a virologist at the University of Washington School of Medicine who reviewed the study, but was not part of the research.

Fuller says that although PA2 appears to be more contagious and pathogenic than Omicron, it may not cause a more harmful wave of Covid-19 infection.

"One caveat that we have to think about, when we get new variants that may seem more dangerous, is the fact that there are two sides of the story: our immune system is developing as well, and that makes things go backwards."

A race against Corona and its variants
Right now, says Fuller, "we're in a race against the virus, and the main question is: Who's on top?


"What we ultimately want is for the host to be ahead of the virus. In other words: our immunity is one step ahead of the next strain that emerges, and I don't know we've come that far yet."

That's why, Fuller says, she feels it's not yet time for communities to lift the masks.

"We were about 10 feet from the finish line. It's not a good idea to take the masks off now. It's just going to extend it. Let's get to the finish line."
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