Washington is pressing to resolve the Sudan crisis: a race of interests or a "obsession with chaos"?

واشنطن تضغط لحل أزمة السودان.. سباق مصالح أم “هاجس فوضى”؟  واشنطن- بهرام عبد المنعم: تسعى الولايات المتحدة لإيجاد حلول للأزمة السودانية “المعقدة والشائكة”، تفاديا لانفراط عقد الأمن والانزلاق نحو الفوضى، في ظل تباعد المواقف بين المكونين المدني والعسكري، واستمرار الاحتجاجات.  وثمة سؤال يتبادر إلى الذهن عما إذا كانت الجهود الأمريكية المبذولة على الساحة السياسية السودانية، تدعم خيارات الشعب في الحرية والسلام كما هو معلن، أم تبحث عن توازن عسكري مدني في الفترة المقبلة للانتقال؟  وكان وفد أمريكي أجرى زيارة إلى السودان في 17 يناير/ كانون الثاني الماضي، استمرت 3 أيام؛ لبحث الأزمة التي بدأت مع اتخاذ قائد الجيش عبد الفتاح البرهان إجراءات يوم 25 أكتوبر/ تشرين الأول الماضي، أبرزها فرض حالة الطوارئ وحل مجلسي السيادة والوزراء الانتقاليين، وهو ما تعتبره قوى سياسية “انقلابا عسكريا”، في مقابل نفي الجيش.  ووقع البرهان وعبد الله حمدوك، في 21 نوفمبر/ تشرين الثاني الماضي، اتفاقا تضمن عودة الأخير إلى رئاسة الحكومة الانتقالية، وتشكيل حكومة كفاءات، وإطلاق سراح المعتقلين السياسيين، قبل أن يستقيل حمدوك في 2 يناير، في ظل احتجاجات رافضة لهذا الاتفاق ومطالبةً بحكم مدني كامل، راح ضحيتها العشرات.  ويرى مراقبون في أحاديث لهم مع الأناضول، أن الولايات المتحدة وحلفائها بالمنطقة يريدون واقعا في السودان “يضمن لهم استمرار مصالحهم”، لذلك سيدعمون الجهود المبذولة حاليا من الأمم المتحدة وأطراف أخرى، لإنهاء الأزمة الراهنة.  إنهاء العنف في 20 يناير الماضي، أكد الوفد الأمريكي برئاسة مساعدة وزير الخارجية للشؤون الإفريقية مولي في، والمبعوث الخاص للقرن الإفريقي ديفيد ساترفيلد، أن بلادهما لن تستأنف المساعدة لحكومة السودان في غياب إنهاء العنف واستعادة حكومة بقيادة مدنية تعكس إرادة الشعب”.  وأعلن الوفد في ختام زيارة إلى الخرطوم، دعم العملية السياسية التي أطلقت مؤخرا بقيادة السودان، والتي تسهلها بعثة الأمم المتحدة المتكاملة للمساعدة في الانتقال بالسودان “يونيتامس” كوسيلة لمساعدة أصحاب المصلحة المدنيين في تحديد طريق مشترك للتغلب على المأزق السياسي والتعهد بالدعم الأمريكي الكامل.  لكن وفق بيان لمجلس السيادة، فإن لقاء جمع رئيس المجلس، عبد الفتاح البرهان، ونائبه محمد حمدان دقلو “حميدتي”، مع الوفد الأمريكي أفضى إلى اتفاق الطرفين على تشكيل حكومة كفاءات وطنية وإجراء انتخابات حرة ونزيهة، ودخول الأطراف السودانية في حوار شامل للتوصل إلى توافق وطني للخروج من الأزمة.  وقبل أن يغادر الوفد الأمريكي أصدر البرهان، قرارًا بتكليف 15 وزيرًا في حكومة تصريف أعمال جديدة.  منطقة حيوية بالنسبة إلى الخبير الاستراتيجي والمحلل السياسي، أمين إسماعيل مجذوب، فإن الولايات المتحدة تنظر للسودان باعتباره منطقة حيوية للأمن القومي الأمريكي، لذلك تهتم به كموقع جغرافي وموارد طبيعية وقوة بشرية وتوازن للقوة في المنطقة مع القوى العالمية الأخرى.  ويقول مجذوب، إن “الولايات المتحدة لا تهتم بمن يحكم، وإذا وجدت نظامًا عسكريًا يحقق مطالبها ومصالحها ستدعمه، وإذا وجدت نظاما مدنيًا يُحقق مصالحها ستدعمه أيضا”.  ويضيف: “أما مسألة الديمقراطية والحكم المدني فهي في حسابات الأمريكان عبارة عن جزرات تقدم لبعض الدول وتُمنع من دول أخرى، وهناك شواهد كثيرة في تعامل الأمريكان مع أنظمة عسكرية أو مدنية”.  وتابع مجذوب: “لذلك في هذه الحالة يحرص الأمريكان بعدم مجيء الروس إلى السودان وعدم منحهم قواعد على البحر الأحمر، وألا تأتي الصين وتنافسهم على الموارد النفطية ومصادر الطاقة الموجودة فيه، وأن لا تأتي غريماتها من الاتحاد الأوروبي إليه للاستثمار في اليورانيوم، وأسواق الصادرات”.  ويتوقع أن “الولايات المتحدة ستدعم توازن بين المدنيين والعسكريين في المرحلة المقبلة لإكمال الفترة الانتقالية، وعندما تأتي الانتخابات سيكون لها شكل من أشكال السيطرة على من يأتي في المرحلة القادمة”.  ومضى المحلل السياسي قائلا: “في تقديري أن الولايات المتحدة تميل للتوازن واقتسام السلطة ومشاركة العسكريين باعتبار أن مصالحها متأرجحة ما بين النظام العسكري السابق، وبين قبول العسكريين للتطبيع في الفترة الانتقالية، والعلاقات العسكرية التي نمت في العامين الماضيين”.  تحركات دولية وإقليمية وتشهد البلاد حاليًا تحركات إقليمية ودولية، وطرح 6 مبادرات دولية وإقليمية ومحلية في مقدمتها المبادرة الأممية برعاية بعثة “يونيتامس”، إضافة لما طرحته “إيغاد” “والاتحاد الإفريقي” و”جوبا”، و”مدراء الجامعات” وحزب “الأمة القومي” لإنهاء الأزمة.  بهذا الصدد، يقول الكاتب والمحلل السياسي، عبدالله رزق: “لا توجد جهود أمريكية، في الوقت الراهن، وإنما هي جهود أممية، فقد انسحبت أمريكا، من مهمة التوسط والتواصل المباشر مع طرفي الأزمة، بمكونيها العسكري والمدني، وتركت المجال للمبعوث الأممي فولكر بيرتس، مكتفية بدعم ما يقوم به من جهود”.  وفي 8 يناير/ كانون الثاني الجاري، أعلن رئيس بعثة (يونيتامس) فولكر بيرتس، إطلاق مشاورات “أولية” لعملية سياسية شاملة بين الأطراف السودانية لحل أزمة البلاد.  ويشير رزق، إلى الموقف الذي تبنته واشنطن في بداية الأزمة عندما رفضت “انقلاب 25 أكتوبر”، ودعت إلى العودة للوثيقة الدستورية وعودة حمدوك لموقعه كرئيس وزراء انتقالي بكامل صلاحياته، ومطالبتها بإطلاق سراح المعتقلين ورفع حالة الطوارئ.  وأضاف: “ثم رحبت أمريكا وحلفائها، بعودة حمدوك لموقعه الدستوري والإفراج عن المعتقلين من الدستوريين، وقد عدت الاتفاق (21 نوفمبر) الذي تم بموجبه عودة حمدوك لموقعه الرسمي خطوة أولي، لكن لم تتلوها أي خطوة إلى أن غادر حمدوك المشهد الرسمي في 2 يناير”.  ويرى رزق أن هذا الأمر “مؤشر أولي على ضعف التأثير الأمريكي، عبر تحرك واشنطن، على حالة الأزمة، إذ لم تؤثر التهديدات علي موقف العسكر، وفي ذات الوقت بدأ التردد ظاهرا في اتجاه واشنطن نحو فرض أي عقوبات على معرقلي الانتقال الديمقراطي”.  وتابع بالقول: “تردد أن خلافا وقع بين المبعوث الأمريكي للسودان وإثيوبيا، جيفري فيلتمان، من جهة، ومساعدة وزير الخارجية الأمريكية، مولي في، بشأن العقوبات،  ويبدو أن استقالة فيلتمان المؤيد لفرض العقوبات، ليخلي الموقع لخلفه ديفيد ساترفيلد، متصل بمصائر المساعي الأمريكية ووصولها لطريق مسدود”.  ويؤكد رزق أنه “منذ اتفاق 21 نوفمبر، بدا أن تحولا حدث في الموقف الأمريكي، وموقف حلفائها، باتجاه التعامل مع الانقلاب كأمر واقع، والتخلي عمليا عن شعار العودة للمسار الشرعي للانتقال بقيادة مدنية”.  ويشير إلى أن “واشنطن تركت للمبعوث الأممي عقب هذا الاتفاق مهمة إيجاد قواسم مشتركة بين طرفي الصراع في البلاد، وهو اتجاه يتصادم مع تبني كافة قوى الثورة لخط رافض للتفاوض مع المكون العسكري والحوار معه أو إعطائه أي شرعية”.  ويوضح رزق أن أمريكا، وحلفائها بالمنطقة، يميلون لترتيب الأوضاع بما يتسق مع مصالحهم، ويتردد بصورة واسعة أن دولا من بينها إسرائيل ومصر والإمارات، معنية بشكل كبير بالوضع في السودان، وتمارس تأثيرًا علي مجرى الأحداث فيه، وتدعم، بشكل خاص، البرهان، وبقائه على رأس السلطة خلال الفترة الانتقالية”.  هاجس الخوف ويرى الكاتب والمحلل السياسي، الجميل الفاضل، أن “الولايات المتحدة ربما يفترسها هاجس الخوف من نتائج أية تحولات راديكالية تخرج من رحم الثورات الشعبية لا تعرف هي عواقبها ويصعب عليها السيطرة والتحكم في مآلاتها النهائية من واقع تجربتها مع الثورة الشعبية الإيرانية التي أطاحت بعرش الشاه محمد رضا بهلوي في العام 1979”.  ويقول الفاضل: “أتصور الآن أن واشنطن تسعى بشتى الحيل للبحث عن مفتاح يغلق جريان وتدفق سيول الشارع الثوري السوداني توطئة لإنتاج معادلة جديدة من شأنها أن تمتص حالة الغضب والفوران الشعبي”.  ويعتقد أن “الولايات المتحدة وحلفائها في المنطقة يريدون معادلة تضمن لهم استمرار مصالحهم في السودان، وتُنهي حالة الضغوط الداخلية التي تواجه إدارة الرئيس جو بايدن من قبل الكونغرس الأمريكي”.  ويتابع الفاضل بالقول: “المهم فإن نوع الحلول التي تهيئ لها واشنطن الآن من خلال مبادرة الأمم المتحدة أو باتصالاتها المباشرة مع لجان المقاومة وأسر الشهداء والأحزاب وتجمع المهنيين كلها تندرج في سياق البحث عن مفتاح للأزمة على مقاس هذه المصالح”.  ويستدرك: “لكن يظل هذا البحث عن المفتاح كالبحث عن إبرة صغيرة في كوم قش هائل”.  (الأناضول)    Washington is pressing to resolve the Sudan crisis: a race of interests or a "obsession with chaos"?  Washington - The United States is seeking to find solutions to the "complex and thorny" Sudanese crisis , in order to avoid a breakdown in the security contract and a slide into chaos, in light of the divergence of positions between the civil and military components, and the continuation of protests.  There is a question that comes to mind whether the American efforts exerted on the Sudanese political arena support the people's choices in freedom and peace as announced, or are they looking for a military-civilian balance in the coming period of transition?  A US delegation visited Sudan on January 17 last, and it lasted for 3 days; To discuss the crisis that began with the army commander, Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan, taking measures on October 25, most notably imposing a state of emergency and dissolving the Sovereignty Councils and the Transitional Ministers, which political forces consider a "military coup", in exchange for the army's denial.  Al-Burhan and Abdullah Hamdouk signed, last November 21, an agreement that included the latter’s return to the presidency of the transitional government, the formation of a government of competencies, and the release of political detainees, before Hamdok resigned on January 2, in light of protests rejecting this agreement and demanding full civilian rule. Dozens were killed.  In their conversations with Anatolia, observers believe that the United States and its allies in the region want a reality in Sudan that "guarantees the continuity of their interests," so they will support the efforts currently being made by the United Nations and other parties, to end the current crisis.  Ending the violence On January 20, the US delegation headed by Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Molly V and Special Envoy for the Horn of Africa, David Satterfield, affirmed that their country would not resume assistance to the Government of Sudan in the absence of an end to the violence and the restoration of a civilian-led government that reflects the will of the people.  At the conclusion of a visit to Khartoum, the delegation announced support for the recently launched political process led by Sudan, facilitated by the United Nations Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS) as a means to assist civilian stakeholders in identifying a common path to overcome the political impasse and to pledge full US support.  However, according to a statement by the Sovereignty Council, a meeting between the President of the Council, Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan, and his deputy, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo “Hemedti”, with the American delegation led to the two parties’ agreement to form a government of national competencies, hold free and fair elections, and the Sudanese parties enter into a comprehensive dialogue to reach consensus. National out of the crisis.  Before the American delegation left, Al-Burhan issued a decision assigning 15 ministers to a new caretaker government.  A vital region For the strategic expert and political analyst, Amin Ismail Majzoub, the United States views Sudan as a vital area for American national security, so it cares about it as a geographic location, natural resources, manpower, and a balance of power in the region with other global powers.  Majzoub said, “The United States does not care who rules, and if it finds a military regime that fulfills its demands and interests, it will support it, and if it finds a civilian regime that achieves its interests, it will support it as well.”  He added: "As for the issue of democracy and civil rule, it is in the Americans' calculations that it is carrots offered to some countries and prevented from other countries, and there is a lot of evidence in the Americans' dealings with military or civilian regimes."  Majzoub added: "Therefore, in this case, the Americans are keen that the Russians do not come to Sudan and not give them bases on the Red Sea, and that China does not come and compete for oil resources and energy sources in it, and that its fines from the European Union do not come to it to invest in uranium and export markets."  It is expected that "the United States will support a balance between civilians and military in the next stage to complete the transitional period, and when the elections come, it will have some form of control over who comes in the next stage."  And the political analyst went on to say, "In my estimation, the United States tends to balance, share power and the participation of the military, considering that its interests fluctuate between the former military regime, the military's acceptance of normalization in the transitional period, and the military relations that have grown in the past two years."  International and regional movements The country is currently witnessing regional and international movements, and 6 international, regional and local initiatives have been proposed, foremost of which is the UN initiative under the auspices of the “UNITAMS” mission, in addition to what was proposed by IGAD, the African Union, Juba, university directors and the National Umma Party to end the crisis. .  In this regard, the writer and political analyst, Abdullah Rizk, says: “There are no American efforts, at the present time, but rather international efforts. America withdrew from the task of mediating and directly communicating with the two sides of the crisis, with its military and civil components, and left the space to the UN envoy, Volker Peretz, satisfied with supporting his efforts.”  On January 8, the head of the (UNITAMS) mission, Volker Peretz, announced the launch of "preliminary" consultations for a comprehensive political process between the Sudanese parties to resolve the country's crisis.  Rizk refers to the position adopted by Washington at the beginning of the crisis when it rejected the “October 25 coup,” and called for a return to the constitutional document and the return of Hamdok to his position as a transitional prime minister with all his powers, and its demand for the release of detainees and the lifting of the state of emergency.  He added: “Then America and its allies welcomed Hamdok’s return to his constitutional position and the release of constitutional detainees, and considered the agreement (November 21), according to which Hamdok’s return to his official site was a first step, but no step followed until Hamdok left the official scene on January 2.” .  Rizk believes that this matter is "a preliminary indication of the weakness of American influence, through Washington's move, on the state of the crisis, as the threats did not affect the position of the military, and at the same time, hesitation began to appear in Washington's direction towards imposing any sanctions on those obstructing the democratic transition."  He continued by saying: "It was reported that a dispute occurred between the US envoy to Sudan and Ethiopia, Jeffrey Feltman, on the one hand, and the US Assistant Secretary of State, Molly V, regarding sanctions,  It seems that the resignation of Feltman, who supports the imposition of sanctions, to vacate the site for his successor, David Satterfield, is related to the fate of the American endeavors and their reaching a dead end.  Rizk asserts that "since the November 21 agreement, it seemed that a shift occurred in the American position, and that of its allies, towards dealing with the coup as a fait accompli, and practically abandoning the slogan of returning to the legitimate path of transition with a civilian leadership."  He points out that "Washington left to the UN envoy, after this agreement, the task of finding common denominators between the two sides of the conflict in the country, a trend that collides with the adoption of all revolutionary forces of a line rejecting negotiation with the military component and dialogue with it or giving it any legitimacy."  Rizk explains that America, and its allies in the region, tend to arrange the situation in line with their interests, and it is widely reported that countries, including Israel, Egypt and the UAE, are greatly concerned with the situation in Sudan, and exert an influence on the course of events in it, and support, in particular, the proof, and its survival on Head of the Authority during the transitional period.  Premonition of fear The writer and political analyst, Al-Jamil Al-Fadil, believes that “the United States may be preyed by fear of the consequences of any radical transformations that emerge from the womb of the popular revolutions. They do not know their consequences, and it is difficult for them to control and control their final outcomes, based on their experience with the Iranian popular revolution that overthrew the throne of Shah Muhammad Reza.” Pahlavi in ​​1979.  Al-Fadil says: "I now imagine that Washington is trying with various tricks to search for a key to block the flow and flow of torrents from the Sudanese revolutionary street, in preparation for the production of a new equation that would absorb the state of popular anger and outburst."  He believes that "the United States and its allies in the region want an equation that guarantees them the continuation of their interests in Sudan, and ends the state of internal pressures facing the administration of President Joe Biden from the US Congress."  Al-Fadil continues by saying: “What is important is that the type of solutions that Washington is preparing now through the United Nations initiative or its direct contacts with the resistance committees, families of martyrs, parties and professionals, all fall within the context of the search for a key to the crisis according to these interests.”  He adds, "But this search for the key remains like searching for a small needle in a huge haystack."(Anatolia)

Washington is pressing to resolve the Sudan crisis: a race of interests or a "obsession with chaos"?


Washington - The United States is seeking to find solutions to the "complex and thorny" Sudanese crisis , in order to avoid a breakdown in the security contract and a slide into chaos, in light of the divergence of positions between the civil and military components, and the continuation of protests.

There is a question that comes to mind whether the American efforts exerted on the Sudanese political arena support the people's choices in freedom and peace as announced, or are they looking for a military-civilian balance in the coming period of transition?

A US delegation visited Sudan on January 17 last, and it lasted for 3 days; To discuss the crisis that began with the army commander, Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan, taking measures on October 25, most notably imposing a state of emergency and dissolving the Sovereignty Councils and the Transitional Ministers, which political forces consider a "military coup", in exchange for the army's denial.

Al-Burhan and Abdullah Hamdouk signed, last November 21, an agreement that included the latter’s return to the presidency of the transitional government, the formation of a government of competencies, and the release of political detainees, before Hamdok resigned on January 2, in light of protests rejecting this agreement and demanding full civilian rule. Dozens were killed.

In their conversations with Anatolia, observers believe that the United States and its allies in the region want a reality in Sudan that "guarantees the continuity of their interests," so they will support the efforts currently being made by the United Nations and other parties, to end the current crisis.

Ending the violence
On January 20, the US delegation headed by Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Molly V and Special Envoy for the Horn of Africa, David Satterfield, affirmed that their country would not resume assistance to the Government of Sudan in the absence of an end to the violence and the restoration of a civilian-led government that reflects the will of the people.

At the conclusion of a visit to Khartoum, the delegation announced support for the recently launched political process led by Sudan, facilitated by the United Nations Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS) as a means to assist civilian stakeholders in identifying a common path to overcome the political impasse and to pledge full US support.

However, according to a statement by the Sovereignty Council, a meeting between the President of the Council, Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan, and his deputy, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo “Hemedti”, with the American delegation led to the two parties’ agreement to form a government of national competencies, hold free and fair elections, and the Sudanese parties enter into a comprehensive dialogue to reach consensus. National out of the crisis.

Before the American delegation left, Al-Burhan issued a decision assigning 15 ministers to a new caretaker government.

A vital region
For the strategic expert and political analyst, Amin Ismail Majzoub, the United States views Sudan as a vital area for American national security, so it cares about it as a geographic location, natural resources, manpower, and a balance of power in the region with other global powers.

Majzoub said, “The United States does not care who rules, and if it finds a military regime that fulfills its demands and interests, it will support it, and if it finds a civilian regime that achieves its interests, it will support it as well.”

He added: "As for the issue of democracy and civil rule, it is in the Americans' calculations that it is carrots offered to some countries and prevented from other countries, and there is a lot of evidence in the Americans' dealings with military or civilian regimes."

Majzoub added: "Therefore, in this case, the Americans are keen that the Russians do not come to Sudan and not give them bases on the Red Sea, and that China does not come and compete for oil resources and energy sources in it, and that its fines from the European Union do not come to it to invest in uranium and export markets."

It is expected that "the United States will support a balance between civilians and military in the next stage to complete the transitional period, and when the elections come, it will have some form of control over who comes in the next stage."

And the political analyst went on to say, "In my estimation, the United States tends to balance, share power and the participation of the military, considering that its interests fluctuate between the former military regime, the military's acceptance of normalization in the transitional period, and the military relations that have grown in the past two years."

International and regional movements
The country is currently witnessing regional and international movements, and 6 international, regional and local initiatives have been proposed, foremost of which is the UN initiative under the auspices of the “UNITAMS” mission, in addition to what was proposed by IGAD, the African Union, Juba, university directors and the National Umma Party to end the crisis. .

In this regard, the writer and political analyst, Abdullah Rizk, says: “There are no American efforts, at the present time, but rather international efforts. America withdrew from the task of mediating and directly communicating with the two sides of the crisis, with its military and civil components, and left the space to the UN envoy, Volker Peretz, satisfied with supporting his efforts.”

On January 8, the head of the (UNITAMS) mission, Volker Peretz, announced the launch of "preliminary" consultations for a comprehensive political process between the Sudanese parties to resolve the country's crisis.

Rizk refers to the position adopted by Washington at the beginning of the crisis when it rejected the “October 25 coup,” and called for a return to the constitutional document and the return of Hamdok to his position as a transitional prime minister with all his powers, and its demand for the release of detainees and the lifting of the state of emergency.

He added: “Then America and its allies welcomed Hamdok’s return to his constitutional position and the release of constitutional detainees, and considered the agreement (November 21), according to which Hamdok’s return to his official site was a first step, but no step followed until Hamdok left the official scene on January 2.” .

Rizk believes that this matter is "a preliminary indication of the weakness of American influence, through Washington's move, on the state of the crisis, as the threats did not affect the position of the military, and at the same time, hesitation began to appear in Washington's direction towards imposing any sanctions on those obstructing the democratic transition."

He continued by saying: "It was reported that a dispute occurred between the US envoy to Sudan and Ethiopia, Jeffrey Feltman, on the one hand, and the US Assistant Secretary of State, Molly V, regarding sanctions,

It seems that the resignation of Feltman, who supports the imposition of sanctions, to vacate the site for his successor, David Satterfield, is related to the fate of the American endeavors and their reaching a dead end.

Rizk asserts that "since the November 21 agreement, it seemed that a shift occurred in the American position, and that of its allies, towards dealing with the coup as a fait accompli, and practically abandoning the slogan of returning to the legitimate path of transition with a civilian leadership."

He points out that "Washington left to the UN envoy, after this agreement, the task of finding common denominators between the two sides of the conflict in the country, a trend that collides with the adoption of all revolutionary forces of a line rejecting negotiation with the military component and dialogue with it or giving it any legitimacy."

Rizk explains that America, and its allies in the region, tend to arrange the situation in line with their interests, and it is widely reported that countries, including Israel, Egypt and the UAE, are greatly concerned with the situation in Sudan, and exert an influence on the course of events in it, and support, in particular, the proof, and its survival on Head of the Authority during the transitional period.

Premonition of fear
The writer and political analyst, Al-Jamil Al-Fadil, believes that “the United States may be preyed by fear of the consequences of any radical transformations that emerge from the womb of the popular revolutions. They do not know their consequences, and it is difficult for them to control and control their final outcomes, based on their experience with the Iranian popular revolution that overthrew the throne of Shah Muhammad Reza.” Pahlavi in ​​1979.

Al-Fadil says: "I now imagine that Washington is trying with various tricks to search for a key to block the flow and flow of torrents from the Sudanese revolutionary street, in preparation for the production of a new equation that would absorb the state of popular anger and outburst."

He believes that "the United States and its allies in the region want an equation that guarantees them the continuation of their interests in Sudan, and ends the state of internal pressures facing the administration of President Joe Biden from the US Congress."

Al-Fadil continues by saying: “What is important is that the type of solutions that Washington is preparing now through the United Nations initiative or its direct contacts with the resistance committees, families of martyrs, parties and professionals, all fall within the context of the search for a key to the crisis according to these interests.”

He adds, "But this search for the key remains like searching for a small needle in a huge haystack."(Anatolia)

بعد أزمته مع الجزائر.. إسبانيا ستشتري الغاز لصالح المغرب وترسله عبر أنبوب المغرب العربي- أوروبا   لندن- “القدس العربي”: قررت إسبانيا السماح للمغرب باستعمال أنبوب المغرب العربي- أوروبا للحصول على الغاز الطبيعي للتخفيف من احتياجاته، وذلك بعدما كانت الجزائر قد أوقفت العمل بالأنبوب نهاية أكتوبر/ تشرين الأول الماضي.  وكان المغرب يحصل على احتياجاته من الغاز الطبيعي أساسا من الجزائر بأسعار تفضيلية نتيجة مرور أنبوب الغاز عبر أراضيه نحو إسبانيا والبرتغال. وبعد الأزمة التي شهدتها العلاقات بين المغرب والجزائر، اتخذت الأخيرة قرار إنهاء العمل بهذا الأنبوب والاقتصار على أنبوب بديل من أراضيها نحو الأندلس.  وتحدث خبراء الطاقة حينها عن مشاكل سيواجهها المغرب للحصول على الغاز بسبب ارتفاع الأسعار، وكيفية التزود بحكم عدم وجود موانىء لديه مجهزة لاستقبال الغاز المسال وليس الغاز في طبيعته العادية. وجرى الحديث عن التدفق في الاتجاه المعاكس. وتتجلى هذه العملية في شراء المغرب الغاز من السوق الدولية ونقله إلى ميناء إسباني ثم ضخ الغاز عبر الأنبوب في الاتجاه المعاكس.  وفي هذا الصدد، نقلت وكالة أوروبا برس عن مصادر رسمية، الأربعاء، قبول حكومة مدريد طلب المغرب المتمثل في استقبال سفن الغاز المحملة بالغاز المسال وتحويله إلى طبيعته العادية ثم ضخه عبر الأنبوب نحو المغرب. وأوضحت المصادر أن تلبية طلب المغرب يدخل في إطار المساهمة في أمنه الطاقوي ثم لصفته كشريك مهم. ويبقى الملفت هو تولي إسبانيا اقتناء الغاز من السوق الدولية لصالح المغرب، وستكون الفاتورة مرتفعة للمغرب وستزيد من تحديات الطاقة التي يواجهها.  ويبدو أن لجوء المغرب لإسبانيا رغم الأزمة بينهما يعود إلى فشل حكومة الرباط في الحصول على المنصات الغازية البحرية لتخزين الغاز، وعدم وجود ميناء مجهز لاستقبال الغاز المسال وتحويله.  ويبدو أن الاتفاق سيمتد لسنوات بحكم صعوبة توفر المغرب على ميناء صالح لاستقبال الغاز، وقد يتم إعداد ميناء طنجة المتوسطي لهذا الغرض.  وتمر العلاقات بين الرباط ومدريد بأزمة مفتوحة منذ نحو عام تم على إثرها سحب السفيرة من مدريد، وذلك نتيجة سوء التفاهم حول ملف الصحراء الغربية        After his crisis with Algeria, Spain will buy gas for Morocco and send it through the Maghreb-Europe pipeline  London - Spain decided to allow Morocco to use the Maghreb-Europe pipeline to obtain natural gas to alleviate its needs, after Algeria had suspended work on the pipeline at the end of last October.  Morocco was getting its natural gas needs mainly from Algeria at preferential prices as a result of the gas pipeline passing through its territory towards Spain and Portugal. After the crisis in relations between Morocco and Algeria , the latter took the decision to end the work of this pipeline and limit itself to an alternative pipeline from its territory towards Andalusia.  At the time, energy experts talked about the problems that Morocco will face in obtaining gas due to the high prices, and how to supply it by virtue of its lack of ports equipped to receive liquefied gas and not gas in its normal nature. It was talked about the flow in the opposite direction. This process is manifested in Morocco buying gas from the international market, transporting it to a Spanish port, and then pumping the gas through the pipeline in the opposite direction.  In this regard, Europe Press Agency quoted official sources, on Wednesday, as saying that the Madrid government had accepted Morocco's request to receive gas ships loaded with liquefied gas, convert it to normal, and then pump it through the pipeline to Morocco. The sources pointed out that meeting Morocco's request comes within the framework of contributing to its energy security and then to its capacity as an important partner. What remains interesting is that Spain will acquire gas from the international market in favor of Morocco, and the bill will be high for Morocco and will increase the energy challenges it faces.  It seems that Morocco’s resort to Spain, despite the crisis between them, is due to the failure of the Rabat government to obtain offshore gas platforms to store gas, and the lack of a port equipped to receive and transfer liquefied gas.  It seems that the agreement will extend for years due to the difficulty of Morocco finding a suitable port to receive gas, and the Tangier-Mediterranean port may be prepared for this purpose.  Relations between Rabat and Madrid have been going through an open crisis for nearly a year, after which the ambassador was withdrawn from Madrid, as a result of a misunderstanding over the Western Sahara file.

After his crisis with Algeria, Spain will buy gas for Morocco and send it through the Maghreb-Europe pipeline


London - Spain decided to allow Morocco to use the Maghreb-Europe pipeline to obtain natural gas to alleviate its needs, after Algeria had suspended work on the pipeline at the end of last October.

Morocco was getting its natural gas needs mainly from Algeria at preferential prices as a result of the gas pipeline passing through its territory towards Spain and Portugal. After the crisis in relations between Morocco and Algeria , the latter took the decision to end the work of this pipeline and limit itself to an alternative pipeline from its territory towards Andalusia.

At the time, energy experts talked about the problems that Morocco will face in obtaining gas due to the high prices, and how to supply it by virtue of its lack of ports equipped to receive liquefied gas and not gas in its normal nature. It was talked about the flow in the opposite direction. This process is manifested in Morocco buying gas from the international market, transporting it to a Spanish port, and then pumping the gas through the pipeline in the opposite direction.

In this regard, Europe Press Agency quoted official sources, on Wednesday, as saying that the Madrid government had accepted Morocco's request to receive gas ships loaded with liquefied gas, convert it to normal, and then pump it through the pipeline to Morocco. The sources pointed out that meeting Morocco's request comes within the framework of contributing to its energy security and then to its capacity as an important partner. What remains interesting is that Spain will acquire gas from the international market in favor of Morocco, and the bill will be high for Morocco and will increase the energy challenges it faces.

It seems that Morocco’s resort to Spain, despite the crisis between them, is due to the failure of the Rabat government to obtain offshore gas platforms to store gas, and the lack of a port equipped to receive and transfer liquefied gas.

It seems that the agreement will extend for years due to the difficulty of Morocco finding a suitable port to receive gas, and the Tangier-Mediterranean port may be prepared for this purpose.

Relations between Rabat and Madrid have been going through an open crisis for nearly a year, after which the ambassador was withdrawn from Madrid, as a result of a misunderstanding over the Western Sahara file.

Kenya : la peau de la Perche du Nil transformée en cuir  Depuis toujours, la pêche est la principale source de revenus à Kisumu, ville bâtie sur les rives du lac Victoria à 340 kilomètres de Nairobi. Depuis plus de 20 ans, des centaines de femmes se sont jointes à cette industrie et transforment la peau de la Perche du Nil en cuir.  Le travail méticuleux et répétitif consiste à gratter les écailles de poisson à l'aide de couteaux. Les peaux sont ensuite revendues vers les marchés étrangers, notamment à destination du Canada, des États-Unis, du Danemark, de l'Éthiopie et de l'Afrique du Sud pour la fabrication de chaussures et divers produits de maroquinerie.  " Je fais ce travail depuis 20 ans et il me permet de subvenir aux besoins de mes enfants, de payer leurs frais de scolarité. Ce travail est essentiellement fait par des femmes car les hommes ont du mal à rester assis pendant 8 heures d'affilée. Pour nous, les femmes cela ne nous pose aucun problème.", explique Céline Adhiambo, une vendeuse de peaux de poisson de 38 ans.  En 2010, Newton Owino, homme d'affaires de 42 ans, a vu une opportunité qui l'a incité à commencer à transformer la peau de Perche du Nil en cuir par l'intermédiaire de son entreprise, Alisam Product Development and Design. Il achète les peaux de poisson à un groupe de 80 femmes. La création de son entreprise est une réponse à la demande croissante de cuir provenant de sources non mammaliennes.  "Kisumu abrite près de sept industries de filetage de poisson. Les industries de filetage produisent près de 150 000 tonnes métriques de déchets de poisson par an", explique-t-il.  Mais cela pose des problèmes, selon Newton Owino, qui est chimiste industriel de formation. "Tous ces déchets sont à l'origine de nombreux problèmes environnementaux, notamment l'eutrophisation, c'est-à-dire qu'ils enrichissent le lac, provoquant ce qui recouvre actuellement le lac, à savoir les herbes aquatiques", assure-t-il. Les plantes aquatiques envahissantes comme la jacinthe d'eau ont un impact négatif sur l'écosystème du lac Victoria en empêchant la vie aquatique d'accéder à une lumière solaire adéquate.  Des répercussions sur l'environnement Pour minimiser l'impact négatif sur l'environnement, Newton Owino utilise des extraits de plantes comme agents de tannage, contrairement à de nombreuses entreprises qui utilisent des produits chimiques toxiques.  "Notre technologie de tannage utilise uniquement la chimie verte, c'est-à-dire l'utilisation de composés végétaux qui sont disponibles localement. Elle présente de nombreux avantages dans le sens où elle protège la santé humaine, la santé animale, la santé végétale et la santé environnementale", explique-t-il.  Pour transformer les peaux de poisson en cuir, Newton Owino utilise une machine fabriquée sur mesure qui trempe la peau de poisson pendant une heure. Pour renforcer la peau et éliminer l'odeur nauséabonde qu'elle dégage, un extrait de banane est ajouté. Ensuite, du sel est ajouté pour dompter l'infection bactérienne de la peau, qui est ensuite trempée pendant 8 heures avant d'être séchée.  L'utilisation du cuir de poisson devient de plus en plus prolifique dans l'industrie de la mode et un nombre croissant de marques internationales haut de gamme utilisent ce matériau.     Kenya: Nile Perch skin transformed into leather  Fishing has always been the main source of income in Kisumu, a town built on the shores of Lake Victoria, 340 kilometers from Nairobi. For more than 20 years, hundreds of women have joined this industry and are transforming the skin of the Nile Perch into leather.  The meticulous and repetitive work consists of scraping the fish scales using knives. The skins are then resold to foreign markets, notably to Canada, the United States, Denmark, Ethiopia and South Africa for the manufacture of shoes and various leather goods.  "I have been doing this job for 20 years and it allows me to support my children, to pay their school fees. This job is mainly done by women because men find it difficult to sit still for 8 hours straight .For us women, that's no problem for us." , explains Céline Adhiambo , a 38-year-old fish skin seller.  In 2010, 42-year-old businessman Newton Owino saw an opportunity that prompted him to start processing Nile Perch hide into leather through his company, Alisam Product Development and Design . He buys fish skins from a group of 80 women. The creation of his company is a response to the growing demand for leather from non-mammalian sources.  “Kisumu is home to nearly seven fish filleting industries. The filleting industries produce nearly 150,000 metric tons of fish waste annually,” he explains.  But that poses problems, according to Newton Owino, who is an industrial chemist by training. "All this waste is the cause of many environmental problems, including eutrophication, that is, it enriches the lake, causing what currently covers the lake, namely aquatic weeds" , assures- he. Invasive aquatic plants like water hyacinth negatively impact the ecosystem of Lake Victoria by preventing aquatic life from accessing adequate sunlight.  Impact on the environment To minimize the negative impact on the environment, Newton Owino uses plant extracts as tanning agents , unlike many companies that use toxic chemicals.  "Our tanning technology uses only green chemistry, i.e. the use of plant compounds that are available locally. It has many advantages in the sense that it protects human health, animal health, plant and environmental health," he explains.  To turn fish skins into leather, Newton Owino uses a custom-built machine that soaks the fish skin for an hour. To strengthen the skin and remove the foul odor from it, banana extract is added. Next, salt is added to tame the bacterial infection of the skin, which is then soaked for 8 hours before being dried.  The use of fish leather is becoming increasingly prolific in the fashion industry and an increasing number of high-end international brands are using this material.

Kenya: Nile Perch skin transformed into leather


Fishing has always been the main source of income in Kisumu, a town built on the shores of Lake Victoria, 340 kilometers from Nairobi. For more than 20 years, hundreds of women have joined this industry and are transforming the skin of the Nile Perch into leather.

The meticulous and repetitive work consists of scraping the fish scales using knives. The skins are then resold to foreign markets, notably to Canada, the United States, Denmark, Ethiopia and South Africa for the manufacture of shoes and various leather goods.

"I have been doing this job for 20 years and it allows me to support my children, to pay their school fees. This job is mainly done by women because men find it difficult to sit still for 8 hours straight .For us women, that's no problem for us." , explains Céline Adhiambo , a 38-year-old fish skin seller.

In 2010, 42-year-old businessman Newton Owino saw an opportunity that prompted him to start processing Nile Perch hide into leather through his company, Alisam Product Development and Design . He buys fish skins from a group of 80 women. The creation of his company is a response to the growing demand for leather from non-mammalian sources.

“Kisumu is home to nearly seven fish filleting industries. The filleting industries produce nearly 150,000 metric tons of fish waste annually,” he explains.

But that poses problems, according to Newton Owino, who is an industrial chemist by training. "All this waste is the cause of many environmental problems, including eutrophication, that is, it enriches the lake, causing what currently covers the lake, namely aquatic weeds" , assures- he. Invasive aquatic plants like water hyacinth negatively impact the ecosystem of Lake Victoria by preventing aquatic life from accessing adequate sunlight.

Impact on the environment
To minimize the negative impact on the environment, Newton Owino uses plant extracts as tanning agents , unlike many companies that use toxic chemicals.

"Our tanning technology uses only green chemistry, i.e. the use of plant compounds that are available locally. It has many advantages in the sense that it protects human health, animal health, plant and environmental health," he explains.

To turn fish skins into leather, Newton Owino uses a custom-built machine that soaks the fish skin for an hour. To strengthen the skin and remove the foul odor from it, banana extract is added. Next, salt is added to tame the bacterial infection of the skin, which is then soaked for 8 hours before being dried.

The use of fish leather is becoming increasingly prolific in the fashion industry and an increasing number of high-end international brands are using this material.
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