Which cancers occur in children, their symptoms and treatment

Childhood Cancer Day 2022: बच्चों में कौन से कैंसर होते हैं, उनके लक्षण और इलाज कैंसर एक ऐसी बीमारी है, जो किसी को भी हो सकती है. ज़रूरी है जानकारी की ताकि लक्षणों की पहचान कर समय पर इलाज हो सके.  Childhood Cancer Day: कैंसर जैसी भयानक बीमारी न सिर्फ बड़ों में देखी जाती है बल्कि कई बार बच्चों में भी देखने को मिलती है. हालाकि बच्चों में होने वाले कैंसर के ठीक होने की संभावना बड़ों के मुक़ाबले कही अधिक है. हर वर्ष 15 फरवरी को विश्व चाइल्डहुड कैंसर दिवस मनाया जाता है. इसे मनाने का उद्देश्य है लोगों को बच्चों में होने वाले कैंसर के प्रति जागरूक करना.  फिट हिंदी ने बच्चों में होने वाले कैंसर से जुड़े सवालों के जवाब जानने के लिए संपर्क किया मेदांता हॉस्पिटल, गुरुग्राम के पीडीऐट्रिक हेमटो ऑन्कोलॉजी और बोने मैरो ट्रैन्स्प्लैंट, चिकित्सा और हेमेटो ऑन्कोलॉजी कैंसर इंस्टीट्यूट के निदेशक, डॉ सत्य प्रकाश यादव से.  बच्चों में कौन से कैंसर ज़्यादा होते हैं?  बच्चों में कई तरह के कैंसर होते हैं. कुछ जो सबसे ज़्यादा होते हैं वो ये हैं:  ल्यूकीमिया- बच्चों में सबसे ज्यादा मामले ल्यूकीमिया के होते हैं. यह एक तरह का ब्लड कैंसर है. ब्रेन कैंसर- बच्चों के मस्तिष्क में बिनाइन ट्यूमर हो जाता है. इसके अलावा दिमाग के अलग-अलग प्रकार के कैंसर भी हो सकते हैं.  लिम्फोमा- इसे गर्दन का कैंसर भी कहते हैं. बच्चों को तीसरा सबसे ज्यादा होने वाला कैंसर है. यह कैंसर लिम्फ ग्रंथियों (गर्दन की ग्रंथियों) में होता है.  न्यूरोब्लास्टोमा – यह एड्रिनल ग्लैंड में होने वाला एक ट्यूमर है, जो किडनी के ऊपरी भाग में होता है  रेटिनोब्लास्टोमा यानि आंखों का कैंसर भी होता है.  हडि्डयों का कैंसर- ऑस्टियोसरकोमा और इविंग्स सरकोमा हड्डियों में होने वाला कैंसर है.  बच्चों में कैंसर के लक्षणों को कैसे पहचाने?  सभी प्रकार के कैंसरों के लक्षण अलग -अलग होते हैं. कुछ के लक्षण इस प्रकार हैं:  ल्यूकीमिया- इसमें बच्चा दिन ब दिन पीला या सफ़ेद दिखने लगता है. हीमोग्लोबिन का स्तर कम होने लगता है. बुख़ार भी बना रहता है. प्लेटलेट की कमी के कारण बच्चे के शरीर में नीले या गुलाबी निशान दिखते हैं. बार-बार इन्फ़ेक्शन होते हैं क्योंकि वाइट ब्लड सेल्ज़ ठीक से काम नहीं कर रहा होता है. ऐसा भी होता है कि वाइट ब्लड सेल्ज़ बच्चे के शरीर में हाई हो जाते हैं और उससे खून गाढ़ा हो जाता है. जिसकी वजह से सिरदर्द, हड्डी या जोड़ों में दर्द होने लगते हैं.  ब्रेन ट्यूमर - इसमें सरदर्द एक आम लक्षण है. कभी कभी स्क्विन्‍ट्‌ (भेंगापन) देखने को मिलता है. इसमें बच्चा रोज़ सुबह सो कर उठने के बाद सरदर्द के साथ जी मचलाने की शिकायत करता है. फिर उल्टी करने के बाद आराम महसूस करता है.  किडनी ट्यूमर- इसमें बच्चे के पेट में गांठ बनती है.  बोने ट्यूमर- ये ज़्यादातर बढ़ते बच्चों में होता है. हड्डी या जोड़ों में गांठ सी होती है, जो दर्द का कारण बनते हैं.  3. क्या कैंसर जेनेटिक भी होते हैं?  कुछ कैंसर जेनेटिक होते हैं जैसे कि ब्रेस्ट कैंसर और ओवेरीयन कैंसर पर ज़्यादातर कैंसर जेनेटिक नहीं होते है.  कैसे समझें कि ऑन्कोलॉजिस्ट(कैंसर विशेषज्ञ) से संपर्क करने का समय आ गया है?  बच्चों में कैंसर एक आम बीमारी नहीं है. इसलिए बच्चे की तबियत बिगड़ने पर लक्षण के अनुसार डॉक्टर से संपर्क कर इलाज कराएं. लेकिन अगर लक्षण के अनुसार इलाज करने के बाद भी बच्चे की स्तिथि में सुधार नहीं आ रहा हो तब समस्या को गंभीरता से देखना होगा.  अगर गर्दन में मिला गांठ हफ़्तों एंटीबायोटिक दवाईयों से भी नहीं ठीक हुआ है, तब बायोप्सी करवाने की ज़रूरत पड़ सकती है.  अगर बच्चे का बुख़ार 10-12 दिन से चेक उप और दवाईयों के बाद भी बना हुआ है और उसके पीछे कोई दूसरा कारण समझ नहीं आ रहा है, तो डॉक्टर से सम्पर्क करें.  बच्चे हो सुबह सवेरे सरदर्द, जी मचलाने और उल्टी की शिकायत हो तो सतर्क हो जाएं.  बच्चों में कैंसर का इलाज का तरीक़ा क्या-क्या है?  कीमोथेरपी बच्चों में कैंसर को ठीक करने का अभी सबसे कारगर तरीक़ा है. जहां बड़ों के कैंसर में कीमोथेरपी उतनी असरदार नहीं दिखती वही बच्चों के कैंसर में ये काफ़ी सफ़ल तरीक़ा है.  सर्जरी और रेडीएशन भी ज़रूरत के हिसाब से की जाती है.  बच्चों के कैंसर में रेडीएशन का प्रयोग कम से कम किया जाता है क्योंकि इसके साइड इफ़ेक्ट्स बच्चों को नुक़सान पहुँचा सकते हैं.  कैंसर होने पर बच्चे का ध्यान कैसे रखें?  बच्चे के आसपास स्वछता रखें. कैंसर से जूझ रहे बच्चों की इम्यूनिटी बहुत कम होती है. इन्फ़ेक्शन से लड़ने की क्षमता भी कम हो चुकी होती है जिसकी वजह से उनको बुख़ार आसानी से आ सकता है. जो उनके लिए बेहद ख़तरनाक साबित हो सकता है.  बुख़ार यानि ख़तरे की घंटी. 100 डिग्री से ज़्यादा बुख़ार होने के 1 घंटे के अंदर हॉस्पिटल पहुँच ने पर जान बचने की संभावना बढ़ जाती है.  अच्छे से पका घर का बना खाना ही खाना चाहिए.  खाना खाने से पहले हाथ अच्छे से साफ़ करना चाहिए.  जब भी बाथरूम का इस्तेमाल करें, तो हाथ अच्छे से साफ़ करें.  इन्फ़ेक्शन से बचने के लिए बच्चे को मास्क पहना कर रखें.  परिवार के लोग भी मास्क का इस्तेमाल करें ताकि फ़्लू, कोविड न हो क्योंकि उनसे ये बीमारियाँ बच्चे को हो सकती है.  बच्चों में कैंसर के इलाज की सफलता दर क्या है? क्या दोबारा कैंसर होने का ख़तरा रहता है?  80% से ज़्यादा मामलों में बच्चे ठीक हो अपने घर चले जाते है. कीमोथेरपी ,सर्जरी और रेडीएशन की नयी तकनीक से हम ज़्यादा से ज़्यादा बच्चों का इलाज सफलतापूर्वक कर रहे हैं. जहां तक दोबारा कैंसर होने की बात है, तो हो सकता है कि 20% बच्चों में ये समस्या दोबारा देखी जाए पर उन्हें भी कड़ी मेहनत और ध्यानपूर्वक इलाज से ठीक कर दिया जा सकता है.  कब समझें कि बच्चा कैंसर मुक्त हो गया है?  जब कैंसर का इलाज ख़त्म हो कर बिना किसी समस्या के कम से कम 5 साल बीत गए हों और उस बीच बच्चे के टेस्ट में कोई भी कैंसर सम्बंधी शिकायत न दिखी हो या बच्चे में कैंसर का कोई भी लक्षण न दिखा हो, तब समझें कि बच्चा पूरी तरह से कैंसर मुक्त हो गया है.  रिकॉवरी के समय क्या ध्यान में रखें?  इलाज ख़त्म होने के बाद साल में 1 बार डॉक्टर से चेक उप ज़रूर कराएं.  रेडीएशन और कीमोथेरपी के साइड इफ़ेक्ट के बारे में डॉक्टर से पूछ कर, ध्यान में रखें.  बच्चे का प्राकृतिक विकास सही तरीक़े से हो रहा है या नहीं ये ध्यान देना चाहिए.  परिवार को ऐसे समय में क्या सलाह देंगे आप?  कैंसर शब्द सुनते ही लोग घबरा जाते हैं. जबकि ये समय सबसे ज़्यादा हिम्मत और बच्चे को प्यार देने के लिए होता है. परिवार के लोगों को ये याद रखना चाहिए कि कैंसर अलग-अलग तरह के होते हैं और लोगों पर अलग-अलग तरह से प्रभाव डालते हैं. बच्चों में कैंसर बड़ों की तरह नहीं होता. उनमें ठीक होने की संभावना बड़ों से कहीं अधिक होती है.    Childhood Cancer Day 2022: Which cancers occur in children, their symptoms and treatment Cancer is a disease that can happen to anyone. It is important to have information so that the symptoms can be identified and treated on time.  Childhood Cancer Day: A dreadful disease like cancer is not only seen in adults, but sometimes it is also seen in children. However, the chances of being cured of cancer in children are much higher than in adults. World Childhood Cancer Day is celebrated every year on 15 February. The purpose of celebrating this is to make people aware of cancer in children.  Fit Hindi contacted Dr. Satya Prakash Yadav, Director, Pediatric Hemato Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant, Medicine and Hemato Oncology Cancer Institute, Medanta Hospital, Gurugram, to find out answers to questions related to cancer in children.  Which cancers are more common in children?  There are many types of cancer in children. Some that happen the most are:  Leukemia- Most cases of leukemia occur in children. It is a type of blood cancer. Brain cancer- Benign tumors develop in the brain of children. Apart from this, there can also be different types of cancer of the brain.  Lymphoma- It is also called cancer of the neck. Children are the third most common cancer. This cancer occurs in the lymph glands (glands of the neck).  Neuroblastoma – This is a tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland, which is in the upper part of the kidney  Retinoblastoma is also a cancer of the eyes.  Bone cancer- Osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma are cancers of the bones.  How to recognize the symptoms of cancer in children?  Symptoms of all types of cancer are different. Some of the symptoms are as follows:  Leukemia- In this, the child starts appearing pale or white day by day. The level of hemoglobin starts decreasing. Fever also persists. Due to the lack of platelets, blue or pink marks appear in the body of the child. Frequent infections occur because the white blood cells are not working properly. It also happens that white blood cells become high in the child's body and the blood becomes thick from it. Due to which headache, bone or joint pain starts.  Brain tumor - Headache is a common symptom in this. Sometimes a squint is seen. In this, the child complains of nausea with headache every morning after waking up. Then after vomiting he feels comfortable.  Kidney tumor- In this, a lump is formed in the stomach of the child.  Sow Tumor- This occurs mostly in growing children. There is a lump in the bone or joint, which causes pain.  3. Are cancers also genetic?  Some cancers are genetic such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer but most cancers are not genetic.  How to understand that it is time to contact an oncologist?  Cancer in children is not a common disease . Therefore, if the child's health deteriorates, according to the symptoms, contact the doctor and get treatment. But if the condition of the child is not improving even after treatment according to the symptoms, then the problem has to be seen seriously.  If the lump found in the neck has not healed even after weeks of antibiotics, then a biopsy may be needed.  If the fever of the child persists for 10-12 days even after check up and medicines and no other reason is understood behind it, then contact the doctor.  Be alert if you have children complaining of headache, nausea and vomiting in the morning.  What is the treatment for cancer in children?  Chemotherapy is currently the most effective method of curing cancer in children. Where chemotherapy does not appear to be as effective in adult cancer, it is a very successful method in children's cancer.  Surgery and radiation are also done according to the need.  Radiation is used to a minimum in children's cancer because its side effects can harm children.  How to take care of a child with cancer?  Keep cleanliness around the child. The immunity of children battling cancer is very low. The ability to fight infection has also decreased, due to which they can get fever easily. Which can prove to be very dangerous for them.  Fever means alarm bell. If you reach the hospital within 1 hour of having a fever of more than 100 degrees, the chances of survival increase.  Only well cooked home cooked food should be eaten.  Hands should be cleaned thoroughly before eating food.  Wash your hands thoroughly whenever you use the bathroom.  Keep the child wearing a mask to avoid infection.  Family members should also use masks so that there is no flu, covid because they can cause these diseases to the child.  What is the success rate of cancer treatment in children? Is there a risk of getting cancer again?  In more than 80% of cases, children recover and go to their homes. With the new technology of chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, we are successfully treating more and more children. As far as recurrence of cancer is concerned, it is possible that 20% of children will see this problem again, but they too can be cured with hard work and careful treatment.  When to understand that the child is cancer free?  When at least 5 years have passed without any problems after the end of cancer treatment and in the meantime the child has not shown any cancer related complaints or any signs of cancer in the child, then understand that the child Has become completely cancer free.  What to keep in mind during recovery?  After the treatment is over, check up with the doctor once in a year.  Ask your doctor about the side effects of radiation and chemotherapy, and keep them in mind.  Whether the natural development of the child is happening properly or not, attention should be given to it.  What advice would you give to the family at such times?  People get nervous when they hear the word cancer. Whereas this is the time to give the most courage and love to the child. Family members should remember that cancers are of different types and affect people in different ways. Cancer in children is not like that of adults. The chances of getting cured in them are much more than the elders.

Which cancers occur in children, their symptoms and treatment


Cancer is a disease that can happen to anyone. It is important to have information so that the symptoms can be identified and treated on time.

Childhood Cancer Day: A dreadful disease like cancer is not only seen in adults, but sometimes it is also seen in children. However, the chances of being cured of cancer in children are much higher than in adults. World Childhood Cancer Day is celebrated every year on 15 February. The purpose of celebrating this is to make people aware of cancer in children.

Fit Hindi contacted Dr. Satya Prakash Yadav, Director, Pediatric Hemato Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant, Medicine and Hemato Oncology Cancer Institute, Medanta Hospital, Gurugram, to find out answers to questions related to cancer in children.

Which cancers are more common in children?

There are many types of cancer in children. Some that happen the most are:

Leukemia- Most cases of leukemia occur in children. It is a type of blood cancer. Brain cancer- Benign tumors develop in the brain of children. Apart from this, there can also be different types of cancer of the brain.

Lymphoma- It is also called cancer of the neck. Children are the third most common cancer. This cancer occurs in the lymph glands (glands of the neck).

Neuroblastoma – This is a tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland, which is in the upper part of the kidney

Retinoblastoma is also a cancer of the eyes.

Bone cancer- Osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma are cancers of the bones.

How to recognize the symptoms of cancer in children?

Symptoms of all types of cancer are different. Some of the symptoms are as follows:

Leukemia- In this, the child starts appearing pale or white day by day. The level of hemoglobin starts decreasing. Fever also persists. Due to the lack of platelets, blue or pink marks appear in the body of the child. Frequent infections occur because the white blood cells are not working properly. It also happens that white blood cells become high in the child's body and the blood becomes thick from it. Due to which headache, bone or joint pain starts.

Brain tumor - Headache is a common symptom in this. Sometimes a squint is seen. In this, the child complains of nausea with headache every morning after waking up. Then after vomiting he feels comfortable.

Kidney tumor- In this, a lump is formed in the stomach of the child.

Sow Tumor- This occurs mostly in growing children. There is a lump in the bone or joint, which causes pain.

3. Are cancers also genetic?

Some cancers are genetic such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer but most cancers are not genetic.

How to understand that it is time to contact an oncologist?

Cancer in children is not a common disease . Therefore, if the child's health deteriorates, according to the symptoms, contact the doctor and get treatment. But if the condition of the child is not improving even after treatment according to the symptoms, then the problem has to be seen seriously.

If the lump found in the neck has not healed even after weeks of antibiotics, then a biopsy may be needed.

If the fever of the child persists for 10-12 days even after check up and medicines and no other reason is understood behind it, then contact the doctor.

Be alert if you have children complaining of headache, nausea and vomiting in the morning.

What is the treatment for cancer in children?

Chemotherapy is currently the most effective method of curing cancer in children. Where chemotherapy does not appear to be as effective in adult cancer, it is a very successful method in children's cancer.

Surgery and radiation are also done according to the need.

Radiation is used to a minimum in children's cancer because its side effects can harm children.

How to take care of a child with cancer?

Keep cleanliness around the child. The immunity of children battling cancer is very low. The ability to fight infection has also decreased, due to which they can get fever easily. Which can prove to be very dangerous for them.

Fever means alarm bell. If you reach the hospital within 1 hour of having a fever of more than 100 degrees, the chances of survival increase.

Only well cooked home cooked food should be eaten.

Hands should be cleaned thoroughly before eating food.

Wash your hands thoroughly whenever you use the bathroom.

Keep the child wearing a mask to avoid infection.

Family members should also use masks so that there is no flu, covid because they can cause these diseases to the child.

What is the success rate of cancer treatment in children? Is there a risk of getting cancer again?

In more than 80% of cases, children recover and go to their homes. With the new technology of chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, we are successfully treating more and more children. As far as recurrence of cancer is concerned, it is possible that 20% of children will see this problem again, but they too can be cured with hard work and careful treatment.

When to understand that the child is cancer free?

When at least 5 years have passed without any problems after the end of cancer treatment and in the meantime the child has not shown any cancer related complaints or any signs of cancer in the child, then understand that the child Has become completely cancer free.

What to keep in mind during recovery?

After the treatment is over, check up with the doctor once in a year.

Ask your doctor about the side effects of radiation and chemotherapy, and keep them in mind.

Whether the natural development of the child is happening properly or not, attention should be given to it.

What advice would you give to the family at such times?

People get nervous when they hear the word cancer. Whereas this is the time to give the most courage and love to the child. Family members should remember that cancers are of different types and affect people in different ways. Cancer in children is not like that of adults. The chances of getting cured in them are much more than the elders.
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