How does breast cancer start? 11 questions about the disease in the month of prevention

How does breast cancer start? 11 questions about the disease in the month of prevention  Global health and social institutions are dedicating the month of October to raise awareness of breast cancer, which affects approximately one in 12 women, according to the World Health Organization.  Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer with more than 2.2 million cases in 2020, the number one cause of cancer death among women, and nearly 685,000 women died from it in 2020.  According to the American Cancer Society , when breast cancer is detected early, in the in situ stage, the 5-year survival rate is 99%.  Breast cancer can also affect men, but this is rare. In the United States, for example, less than 1% of breast cancer cases affect men, according to breastcancer.org , and the average risk of a man developing breast cancer in his lifetime is about one in every thousand.  Below, we answer 11 frequently asked questions about breast cancer:  1- How does breast cancer start? Breast cancer originates in breast tissue and occurs when breast cells mutate and grow out of control, forming a mass of tissue, a 'tumour'. Like other types of cancer, breast cancer can invade and grow in the tissues surrounding the breast, and it can also metastasize to other parts of the body and form new tumors, and when this happens, it's called a "metastasis," according to a report at the Cleveland Clinic. ).  Symptoms of breast cancer Infographic Infographic Infographic   2- At what age does breast cancer appear? Most breast cancers appear in women who are 50 years old or older, according to the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , and cases increase in women between the ages of 65 and 74, while the average age at diagnosis is 63 years, but the infection may also come In their twenties or thirties, although rare.   In contrast, more recent data also indicates that breast cancer is in fact the most common type of cancer among young people between the ages of 15 and 39, accounting for 30% of all cancers in this age group, according to a US research review published in 2021 and quoted by the website . Healthline.  Additionally, data from the 2017 US Surveillance and Epidemiology (SEER) database showed that 5.6% of invasive breast cancer diagnoses were in women under the age of 40.  3- How long can a breast cancer patient live? The overall 5-year relative survival rate for breast cancer is 90%, which means that 90 out of 100 affected women survive 5 years after being diagnosed with breast cancer.  The 10-year survival rate for breast cancer is 84% ​​(ie, 84 out of every 100 women diagnosed with breast cancer survive after 10 years). The 15-year relative breast cancer survival rate is 80% (meaning 80 out of 100 women survive after 15 years), according to a WebMD report.   4- Symptoms of breast cancer Breast cancer symptoms can vary from person to person, and possible signs include:  A change in the size, shape or contour of the breast. A lump appears in it, which may look as small as a pea. A lump or thickening in or near the breast or under the armpit that persists during the menstrual cycle. Change in the look or feel of the skin on the breast or nipple (dimpled, puckered, scaly, or inflamed). Redness of the skin on the breast or nipple. The appearance of an area that is clearly different from any other area on both breasts. The appearance of a hard, marble-like area under the skin. The appearance of a fluid, blood-stained or clear discharge from the nipple. In some cases, no sign of breast cancer is noticed at all, making routine X-rays important.   5 types of breast cancer There are several different types of breast cancer, including:   Infiltrating (Invasive) Ductal Carcinoma Starting from the milk ducts in the breast, this type penetrates the ductal wall and spreads to the surrounding breast tissue. It is the most common type of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.  Ductal Carcinoma In Situ It is also called "stage zero breast cancer". Some consider that ductal carcinoma in situ may be cancerous because the cells have not spread outside the milk ducts, and this condition is very treatable. However, prompt care is necessary to prevent the cancer from spreading to other tissues.  Infiltrating (Invasive) Lobular Carcinoma This cancer develops in the breast lobules (where milk is produced), spreads to surrounding breast tissue, and accounts for 10% to 15% of breast cancers.  Lobular Carcinoma In Situ It is a precancerous condition in which there are abnormal cells in the breast lobules. It is not considered real cancer, but this sign can indicate the possibility of developing breast cancer later, so it is important for women with lobular carcinoma in situ to have clinical breast exams and regular mammograms.  Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) Triple negative breast cancer accounts for about 15% of all cases, and it is one of the most difficult types of breast cancer to treat, and it is described as triple negative because it does not contain 3 signs associated with other types of breast cancer, and this makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult.  Inflammatory Breast Cancer This is a rare and severe type of cancer and looks like an infection. Women with inflammatory breast cancer usually notice redness, swelling, pitting and engravings in the breast skin, as a result of the blockage of cancer cells in the lymphatic vessels of the skin.  Paget's Disease Of The Breast This cancer affects the skin of the nipple and areola (the skin around the nipple).  6- Can men get breast cancer? The answer is yes. Both men and women have breasts that are made up of fatty tissue, nipples, ducts (the tubes that carry milk to the nipples) and lobules (milk-producing glands).  During puberty, hormones in girls' bodies cause breast tissue to grow, while hormones in boys' bodies restrict the growth of their breasts, so their breast tissue stays smaller.  Most breast cancers in men are ductal carcinomas, which begin in the milk ducts, according to breast cancer.org .  Unfortunately, men are often diagnosed with breast cancer at a more advanced stage, and the main reason is that they do not have a routine mammogram as women do, to detect breast cancer at an early stage where treatment is easier.  Because men may not know they can develop breast cancer, they usually don't look for changes in breast tissue, and they may not realize they should talk to their doctor about a lump, pain, swelling, or other symptoms.  7- Causes of breast cancer Breast cancer develops when abnormal cells in the breast divide and multiply, but experts don't know exactly why this process started in the first place.  However, research indicates that there are several risk factors that may increase your chances of developing breast cancer, and these include:  the age The risk of developing breast cancer increases at age 55 or older.  sex Women are more likely to get breast cancer than men, but it can also affect men.  family history If your parents, siblings or other close relatives have been diagnosed with breast cancer, you're more likely to develop the disease at some point in your life. About 5-10% of breast cancers are caused by abnormal genes that are passed from parents to children, and this can be detected by genetic testing.  smoking Tobacco use has been linked to many different types of cancer, including breast cancer.  wine Research suggests that heavy drinking can increase the risk of certain types of breast cancer.  obesity Obesity can increase the risk and recurrence of breast cancer.  Radiation exposure If you've previously had radiation therapy, especially to your head, neck or chest, this increases your risk of breast cancer.  Hormone replacement therapy People who use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have an increased risk of developing breast cancer.  8- How does breast cancer hurt? Breast pain is usually present to some extent with inflammatory breast cancer that has other distinct symptoms as well, but a breast tumor rarely causes pain. In general, carcinoid tumors are not reported to be painful. This is according to the National Breast Cancer Foundation in the United States.  9- The shape of a breast cancer pill According to the Mayo Clinic , a breast lump that is painless, firm, irregular, and different from surrounding breast tissue, may be breast cancer. The skin covering the lump may look red, sunken, or patterned, like the skin of an orange. The size and shape of the breast may change, or the woman may notice a discharge from the nipple.  10- Breast cancer treatment There are many breast cancer treatment options, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy and targeted drug therapy.  Treatment depends on many factors, including the location and size of the tumor, lab test results, and whether the cancer has spread to other parts of your body.  Treatments include:  Breast Cancer Surgery Breast cancer surgery involves removing the cancerous portion and the surrounding normal tissue.  Breast cancer chemotherapy Your health care provider might recommend chemotherapy for breast cancer before a lumpectomy, in an effort to shrink the tumor. Sometimes, it is given after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence (come back). If the cancer has spread outside your breast to other parts of your body, your health care provider may recommend chemotherapy as the primary treatment.  Radiation therapy for breast cancer Radiation therapy for breast cancer is usually given after a lumpectomy or mastectomy to kill remaining cancer cells. It may also be used to treat individual metastatic tumors that cause pain or other problems.  Breast cancer hormonal therapy Some types of breast cancer use hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, to grow. In these cases, hormone therapy can either lower estrogen levels or prevent it from attaching to breast cancer cells.  Breast cancer immunotherapy Immunotherapy uses the power of the immune system to target and attack breast cancer cells. Treatment is given intravenously. A health care provider may use breast cancer immunotherapy with chemotherapy.  Targeted drug therapy for breast cancer Certain drugs can target specific characteristics of cancer-causing cells, and your health care provider may recommend targeted drug therapy in cases where breast cancer has spread to other areas of the body.  Some of the more common medications used in breast cancer treatment include:  Trastuzumab (Trastuzumab). Pertuzumab. Margetuximab (Margetuximab). Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine. Fam-Trastuzumab Deuxtecan. Lapatinib (Lapatinib). Neratinib. Tocatinib.  11- What is mammogram detected? According to Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar , a mammogram is an examination in which low doses of X-rays are used to examine the breasts, in order to detect any abnormal changes. The results are recorded on X-ray films or directly on the computer of the doctor called a radiologist, in order to analyze and examine them.  Mammograms are used as part of a screening plan for breast cancer in women who do not have signs or symptoms of the disease.  Radiography is generally considered safe, fast and relatively painless. Radiography is one of the best ways to detect breast cancer early when it is in a stage where it is easy to treat, and before it becomes large enough to be felt or cause symptoms.

Global health and social institutions are dedicating the month of October to raise awareness of breast cancer, which affects approximately one in 12 women, according to the World Health Organization.

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer with more than 2.2 million cases in 2020, the number one cause of cancer death among women, and nearly 685,000 women died from it in 2020.

According to the American Cancer Society , when breast cancer is detected early, in the in situ stage, the 5-year survival rate is 99%.

Breast cancer can also affect men, but this is rare. In the United States, for example, less than 1% of breast cancer cases affect men, according to breastcancer.org , and the average risk of a man developing breast cancer in his lifetime is about one in every thousand.

Below, we answer 11 frequently asked questions about breast cancer:

1- How does breast cancer start?
Breast cancer originates in breast tissue and occurs when breast cells mutate and grow out of control, forming a mass of tissue, a 'tumour'. Like other types of cancer, breast cancer can invade and grow in the tissues surrounding the breast, and it can also metastasize to other parts of the body and form new tumors, and when this happens, it's called a "metastasis," according to a report at the Cleveland Clinic. ).

Symptoms of breast cancer Infographic Infographic Infographic

 2- At what age does breast cancer appear?
Most breast cancers appear in women who are 50 years old or older, according to the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , and cases increase in women between the ages of 65 and 74, while the average age at diagnosis is 63 years, but the infection may also come In their twenties or thirties, although rare.


In contrast, more recent data also indicates that breast cancer is in fact the most common type of cancer among young people between the ages of 15 and 39, accounting for 30% of all cancers in this age group, according to a US research review published in 2021 and quoted by the website . Healthline.

Additionally, data from the 2017 US Surveillance and Epidemiology (SEER) database showed that 5.6% of invasive breast cancer diagnoses were in women under the age of 40.

3- How long can a breast cancer patient live?
The overall 5-year relative survival rate for breast cancer is 90%, which means that 90 out of 100 affected women survive 5 years after being diagnosed with breast cancer.

The 10-year survival rate for breast cancer is 84% ​​(ie, 84 out of every 100 women diagnosed with breast cancer survive after 10 years). The 15-year relative breast cancer survival rate is 80% (meaning 80 out of 100 women survive after 15 years), according to a WebMD report.


4- Symptoms of breast cancer
Breast cancer symptoms can vary from person to person, and possible signs include:

A change in the size, shape or contour of the breast.
A lump appears in it, which may look as small as a pea.
A lump or thickening in or near the breast or under the armpit that persists during the menstrual cycle.
Change in the look or feel of the skin on the breast or nipple (dimpled, puckered, scaly, or inflamed).
Redness of the skin on the breast or nipple.
The appearance of an area that is clearly different from any other area on both breasts.
The appearance of a hard, marble-like area under the skin.
The appearance of a fluid, blood-stained or clear discharge from the nipple.
In some cases, no sign of breast cancer is noticed at all, making routine X-rays important.


5 types of breast cancer
There are several different types of breast cancer, including:


Infiltrating (Invasive) Ductal Carcinoma
Starting from the milk ducts in the breast, this type penetrates the ductal wall and spreads to the surrounding breast tissue. It is the most common type of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
It is also called "stage zero breast cancer". Some consider that ductal carcinoma in situ may be cancerous because the cells have not spread outside the milk ducts, and this condition is very treatable. However, prompt care is necessary to prevent the cancer from spreading to other tissues.

Infiltrating (Invasive) Lobular Carcinoma
This cancer develops in the breast lobules (where milk is produced), spreads to surrounding breast tissue, and accounts for 10% to 15% of breast cancers.

Lobular Carcinoma In Situ
It is a precancerous condition in which there are abnormal cells in the breast lobules. It is not considered real cancer, but this sign can indicate the possibility of developing breast cancer later, so it is important for women with lobular carcinoma in situ to have clinical breast exams and regular mammograms.

Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)
Triple negative breast cancer accounts for about 15% of all cases, and it is one of the most difficult types of breast cancer to treat, and it is described as triple negative because it does not contain 3 signs associated with other types of breast cancer, and this makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult.

Inflammatory Breast Cancer
This is a rare and severe type of cancer and looks like an infection. Women with inflammatory breast cancer usually notice redness, swelling, pitting and engravings in the breast skin, as a result of the blockage of cancer cells in the lymphatic vessels of the skin.

Paget's Disease Of The Breast
This cancer affects the skin of the nipple and areola (the skin around the nipple).

6- Can men get breast cancer?
The answer is yes. Both men and women have breasts that are made up of fatty tissue, nipples, ducts (the tubes that carry milk to the nipples) and lobules (milk-producing glands).

During puberty, hormones in girls' bodies cause breast tissue to grow, while hormones in boys' bodies restrict the growth of their breasts, so their breast tissue stays smaller.

Most breast cancers in men are ductal carcinomas, which begin in the milk ducts, according to breast cancer.org .

Unfortunately, men are often diagnosed with breast cancer at a more advanced stage, and the main reason is that they do not have a routine mammogram as women do, to detect breast cancer at an early stage where treatment is easier.

Because men may not know they can develop breast cancer, they usually don't look for changes in breast tissue, and they may not realize they should talk to their doctor about a lump, pain, swelling, or other symptoms.

7- Causes of breast cancer
Breast cancer develops when abnormal cells in the breast divide and multiply, but experts don't know exactly why this process started in the first place.

However, research indicates that there are several risk factors that may increase your chances of developing breast cancer, and these include:

the age
The risk of developing breast cancer increases at age 55 or older.

sex
Women are more likely to get breast cancer than men, but it can also affect men.

family history
If your parents, siblings or other close relatives have been diagnosed with breast cancer, you're more likely to develop the disease at some point in your life. About 5-10% of breast cancers are caused by abnormal genes that are passed from parents to children, and this can be detected by genetic testing.

smoking
Tobacco use has been linked to many different types of cancer, including breast cancer.

wine
Research suggests that heavy drinking can increase the risk of certain types of breast cancer.

obesity
Obesity can increase the risk and recurrence of breast cancer.

Radiation exposure
If you've previously had radiation therapy, especially to your head, neck or chest, this increases your risk of breast cancer.

Hormone replacement therapy
People who use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

8- How does breast cancer hurt?
Breast pain is usually present to some extent with inflammatory breast cancer that has other distinct symptoms as well, but a breast tumor rarely causes pain. In general, carcinoid tumors are not reported to be painful. This is according to the National Breast Cancer Foundation in the United States.

9- The shape of a breast cancer pill
According to the Mayo Clinic , a breast lump that is painless, firm, irregular, and different from surrounding breast tissue, may be breast cancer. The skin covering the lump may look red, sunken, or patterned, like the skin of an orange. The size and shape of the breast may change, or the woman may notice a discharge from the nipple.

10- Breast cancer treatment
There are many breast cancer treatment options, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy and targeted drug therapy.

Treatment depends on many factors, including the location and size of the tumor, lab test results, and whether the cancer has spread to other parts of your body.

Treatments include:

Breast Cancer Surgery
Breast cancer surgery involves removing the cancerous portion and the surrounding normal tissue.

Breast cancer chemotherapy
Your health care provider might recommend chemotherapy for breast cancer before a lumpectomy, in an effort to shrink the tumor. Sometimes, it is given after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence (come back). If the cancer has spread outside your breast to other parts of your body, your health care provider may recommend chemotherapy as the primary treatment.

Radiation therapy for breast cancer
Radiation therapy for breast cancer is usually given after a lumpectomy or mastectomy to kill remaining cancer cells. It may also be used to treat individual metastatic tumors that cause pain or other problems.

Breast cancer hormonal therapy
Some types of breast cancer use hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, to grow. In these cases, hormone therapy can either lower estrogen levels or prevent it from attaching to breast cancer cells.

Breast cancer immunotherapy
Immunotherapy uses the power of the immune system to target and attack breast cancer cells. Treatment is given intravenously. A health care provider may use breast cancer immunotherapy with chemotherapy.

Targeted drug therapy for breast cancer
Certain drugs can target specific characteristics of cancer-causing cells, and your health care provider may recommend targeted drug therapy in cases where breast cancer has spread to other areas of the body.

Some of the more common medications used in breast cancer treatment include:

Trastuzumab (Trastuzumab).
Pertuzumab.
Margetuximab (Margetuximab).
Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine.
Fam-Trastuzumab Deuxtecan.
Lapatinib (Lapatinib).
Neratinib.
Tocatinib.

11- What is mammogram detected?
According to Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar , a mammogram is an examination in which low doses of X-rays are used to examine the breasts, in order to detect any abnormal changes. The results are recorded on X-ray films or directly on the computer of the doctor called a radiologist, in order to analyze and examine them.

Mammograms are used as part of a screening plan for breast cancer in women who do not have signs or symptoms of the disease.

Radiography is generally considered safe, fast and relatively painless. Radiography is one of the best ways to detect breast cancer early when it is in a stage where it is easy to treat, and before it becomes large enough to be felt or cause symptoms.

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