What does the newly found tombstone of Elterish Kagan, the founder of the 2nd Turkish Empire, say?

What does the newly found tombstone of Elterish Kagan, the founder of the 2nd Turkish Empire, say?

Last August 22, we welcomed a good news from the Mongolian highlands, one of the homelands of the ancient Turks. On that day, the tombstone of Elterish Kagan, who founded the 2nd Turkish Empire and saved the Turkish people from the Chinese occupation for half a century, was found, and an indescribable gap in Turkish written history was filled. 

 This innovation, which began as a result of the long-term cooperation between the Kazakh International Turkish Academy and the Mongolian College of Archeology research team in Nursultan, central Kazakhstan, has led to many positive developments.

The head of the cooperation group, Prof. Dr. Darhan Kaderali, was appointed as the Minister of the Ministry of National Knowledge and Social Relations of Kazakhstan in honor of the achievements. Professor Dr. Darhan Kaderali received a special interview from Radio Free Asia's Uyghur department in the early days of the discovery of the eternal stone, and gave a detailed account of the process of finding the eternal stone and its research.

Ever since the earliest days when the stone was found, it has attracted the special attention of scholars and historians of the ancient Turkic language. There has been a series of television and online interviews about this forever rock.

On August 24 of last year, the cooperation group organized a special press conference in connection with the discovery of the Etruscan Eternity Stone in Mongolia. On September 24 last year, at an international conference held in Adana, Turkey, experts announced their achievements in the study of inscriptions engraved on stone forever. The research results were published in the fall issue of Turkish Culture magazine. After that, well-known Kazakh and Uyghur scholars from Kazakhstan came together and published another important book called "Written Culture of Ancient Turkic and Ancient Uyghur Lands". Since then, a flurry of articles has been published analyzing the names and terms on the stones, the date of the stone's installation, and historical events.

Last year, December 15th was the 129th anniversary of Wilhelm Thomson's reading of the script used on the Orhun monuments. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) named the day "Turkish Language Day". On the same day, the Turkish Academy hosted a conference on the topic of "Turkish Culture in the World: Elterish Boxed Kagan Monument" in honor of the newly discovered Elterish Kagan Monument at the UNESCO Center in Paris. The conference was attended by permanent stone researchers and UNESCO officials from the independent Turkish states and Mongolia. 

Since the beginning of this year, which marks the 130th anniversary of the reading of the Orhun-Yansaye monuments, the Eterish Kagan Eternity Stone has been one of the important topics in conferences on the Turkish language and culture around the world.

Turkish historians to date have read most of the information about Elterish Kaghan from his sons Kültegin and Bilge, who were seven and eight years old at the time of his death, and from some ancient Chinese historical sources. On the Toniquk monument, Elterish Qagan is mentioned with the first military title, and the information about the military journeys of Elterish, who was later named as Qagan, is briefly summarized, and his victorious punitive campaigns against the Tang Dynasty 17 times, 7 times against the Khitans and 5 times against the Uyghts are described.

It is stated that Elterish Kagan passed away on March 7, the year of the sheep, on the "Chairan" memorial stone. The famous French historian Louis Bazin, in his most detailed work on the Turkish calendar, proved that this date corresponds to November 13, 691 AD.

What is said on the newly discovered monument of Eterish Kagan? Why do we call the discovery of this monument a great discovery in Turkish history?

 According to the research results of the researchers of the Turkish Academy, it is known that the palace, which was built with stones and stones, was destroyed by others before. The fragment found last year is the top part of the original standing stone, with 12 lines of letters engraved on its front surface. It has 26 words to read. There are also surviving individual letters of some words. Among these words are keywords such as "Turkish", "Kutlug Kagan" and "Son of God". Over the past year the words on the stone have been studied more historically. The reading of the words has been basically based on the initial reading suggestions of the Turkish Academy.

After briefly summarizing the history of the Turkish khanate from the first Turkish khanate, the Kueltegin Perpetual Stone explains why the khanate was destroyed and colonized by the Tang Empire. After that, his brother died. The children are gone. give up After that, because his brother was not born like his brother, because his son was not born like his father, bad kings sat on the throne. That's right. Commanders are also stupid. Due to the lack of unity between the tribes and the people, the Chinese people were cunning and strong, and because they incited brother and brother, between the tribe and the people (against each other), the Turkish people colonized the country they were asking for. He subdued the king who was reigning. The sons who deserve to be grateful to China are slaves. There are girls who are fit to be princesses. The Turkish begs abandoned their Turkish titles and adopted Chinese titles to depend on the Chinese emperor and worked for forty years without knowledge.

The arrival of Elterish Kagan from the Ashina tribe coincides with a period in which his ancestors lived in dependence on the Tang Dynasty since 630 AD. At that time, the warlike and heroic Turkish people fought against other countries for the Tang Dynasty, and occupied those countries for the Tang Empire, but they could not satisfy the Tang Empire. The Turkic tribes of Elterish Kagan rebelled with the goal of gaining independence. The thoughts of the Turkish people at this time are described on the Kooltegin Eternal Stone: "I was a nation with a state, now my state is dead? To whom am I taking the country?'' ``I was the people of Kagan, my Kagan's blood? Which ruler am I serving?'' Therefore, not to be an enemy of the Chinese emperor.

Although the Turkic tribes who founded the first Turkic dynasty in 552 AD and ruled until 630 AD devoted themselves to the Tang Dynasty, they still could not escape the slavery of the Tang people. Young Kutuk, who grew up seeing the plight of the Turkish people, deeply feels that freedom comes at the cost of life and death. In particular, in 578 AD, Qutlug, who could not bear the brutal murder of 54 people, including some of his relatives, was taken to the Tang capital Chang'an and immediately rebelled against the Tang Dynasty. In the Kooltegin Eternal Stone, it is stated that Elterish Kagan first rose in 679 AD with 17 men, grew rapidly and waged 47 major wars, 17 of which were specifically against China. In 681, Elterish Kagan, who personally led the army and participated in 20 wars and continued to win, succeeded in establishing the 2nd Turkish Empire and sat on the Kagan throne from then until November 13, 691.

The discovery of the Elterish Kagan Eternal Stone is another great step forward in the history of Turks writing their history based on historical sources in their native language. The discovery of the Elterish Kagan Eternal Stone encourages the Turkish people to always be vigilant and distinguish between friend and foe.

In 1893, Danish Wilhelm Thomson Tarif deciphered the mysterious inscriptions on the Orhun Eternal Stones, and 129 years later, the discovery of the gravestone of the bravest statesman in Turkish history, the invincible hero Kutlug Kagan, or Elterish Kagan, became the first scientific field to fill some unknown gaps in Turkish history. Hand provided source. This eternal stone defined the mutual relations of the Turkish people with neighboring countries and peoples at that time. It sheds more light on the steps and indelible traces of our ancestors in history to realize their dream of independence.

More than 70 civilians were killed in two months due to airstrikes and heavy weapons

On November 11, 2023, near the Pasing Kyaw Gate at the exit of Lauk Kai City, some people were injured due to the explosion of a large weapon.

In the last two months of September and October, at least 72 civilians were killed and 252 were injured due to air strikes and heavy weapons by the Military Council.

Before that, in the two months of July and August, 68 civilians were killed and 241 were injured. Therefore, it can be said that the rate of civilian casualties continued to rise between September and October.

"Currently, these 19 are in Kumlong Hospital. "

In the meantime, in the 1027 operation of the three northern twin alliances that started on October 27, the military council lost many territories and the soldiers defected. Therefore, in the military council's counteroffensive, air force and heavy weapons are used more. More and more civilians are affected.

During the first five days of Operation 1027, which ran from October 27 to 31, at least 12 civilians were killed and 30 wounded by air and heavy artillery.

Among the recent incidents, the most civilian casualties were the bombardment of Uywa Bridge in Kumlong Township. On October 30, at around 2:00 p.m., a civilian was killed and 19 others were injured in the village of Bridge U village when an airplane bombed the area, a spokesman for Ta Ang Women's Group, who did not want to be named, explained.

"Currently, these 19 are in Kumlong Hospital. The Red Cross came and helped them. One died. That one died on the spot. The rest of us were still in a state where we did not dare to look at them (the injured) on the Kumlong city. Because the villagers are surrounded by a military council, they don't dare to move."

Deaths caused by air and heavy weapons occurred in 12 provinces and territories except Yangon and Irrawaddy.

The most civilian casualties are Baguio. Within two months, seven people were killed and 60 were injured.

An unnamed resident said that four family members were injured when a large-arms bullet exploded on a house in Nandameit Village, Phyu Township, Bago Province, at noon on October 10.

"In Dindamit village, two large weapons were thrown. One is next to our village. One fell on the house and injured four family members. There is a child in it. mother and child There are two elderly people.”

The injured were two-year-old Maung Fullang, 35-year-old Mamala 58-year-old Daw Myint Htay and 60-year-old U Tin Tun are also reported by the Karen National Union (KNU).

KNU spokesperson Pado Saw Toney told RFA that the military council is worried that the KNU Brigade (3rd) will be able to control from the eastern side of Baguio to the old Yangon-Mandalay highway and expressway, and they are firing both air and heavy weapons every day.

"The entire west side of the 3rd Brigade is the Sittaung River basin. And the Yangon-Mandalay highway is right there. Yangon-Nay Pyi Taw-Mandalay New Road is also there. Our troops have approached that area and are already in a position where they can settle down. From what I can see, they (the military council) are quite worried. Because the Yangon-Mandalay road is close to Taungnu. Taung Nu and Nay Pyi Taw are not far away. The reason why our troops can settle down is because of public support. Therefore, in that situation, they are in a position where they vote more and more to the public."

Pado Sawtonei said that because the military council troops deliberately fired at villages to discourage the local people from supporting the armed resistance groups, the number of civilian casualties increased.

On October 11, 2023, a house damaged by a large weapon fired by the military council was found in Nyaung Laip District, Bago Province.  (Photo: Karen National Union)
On October 11, 2023, a house damaged by a large weapon fired by the military council was found in Nyaung Laip District, Bago Province. (Photo: Karen National Union)

Regarding this statement, RFA contacted General Zaw Min Tun, the spokesperson of the Military Council, by telephone, but he did not receive an answer.

Therefore, when I asked U Thein Tun Oo, executive director of the Military Strategy Study Group, which is a group of former military officers, he told RFA that the Military Council Army cannot be blamed for the civilian casualties while suppressing armed attacks.

U Kyaw Win, executive director of the Myanmar Human Rights Network (BHRN), an independent group, criticized the military council's attacks as war crimes.

“There are three international crimes. war crimes Committing crimes against humanity Genocide. Something is definitely missing in these three. We can say that the worst is a war crime.”

In summary, RFA has observed that 534 civilians were killed and 1,064 injured by air strikes and heavy weapons in the 10 months from January to the end of October this year.
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