Discover the secrets of human aging in plant leaves! Discover the secrets of human aging in plant leaves!

Discover the secrets of human aging in plant leaves!

Discover the secrets of human aging in plant leaves!

Scientists have made an important discovery in plant cells, opening the door to anti-aging potential in humans.
The research team, led by the University of California, Riverside (UCR), set out to explore which parts of plant cells were instrumental in controlling responses to various stressors such as inflammation, stress, excess salt, or insufficient light.

In the course of their investigation, the team found a Golgi body, an organelle (the living parts or bodies found in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell) known to scientists for more than a century, and identified its crucial role in plant senescence.

Scientists found that this organelle and its associated protein dictate the plant's survival when left in the dark repeatedly.

“For us, this is an important result,” said Katie Dehish, distinguished professor of molecular biochemistry at UCLA and co-author of the study published in Nature Plants Journal. “For the first time, we have identified the profound importance of an organelle in the cell that had not previously been implicated in the process of Old age.

This organelle, the Golgi body, consists of a series of cup-shaped bags covered with a membrane, which is responsible for sorting molecules in the cell to ensure that they reach their correct places.

One important component inside the Golgi body is a protein called COG, which works by controlling and coordinating the movement of small “envelopes” that transport other molecules around the cell.

The COG protein and the Golgi bodies work together, as this protein is what helps the Golgi bodies bind sugars to other proteins or fats before sending them to the required places in the plant.

Hyesung Choi, a researcher in the Department of Botany at the University of California and first author of the new study, described how the protein and the organelle work together. "The Golgi apparatus is like a cell's post office. It packages and sends proteins and lipids to where they are needed. A damaged Golgi apparatus can lead to confusion and problems in cell activities, affecting how the cell functions and stays healthy," Choi wrote.

Effect of COG protein on plant cells

After discovering how important COG protein is for plant health, the team decided to dig deeper to learn more about how this protein affects the growth of these plants. Working with two groups of plants, they modified some of them so that they could not produce these proteins.

As expected, the modified plants had no problems growing under normal conditions and were indistinguishable from unmodified plants.

“In the dark, the COG mutants showed signs of aging that normally appear in unmodified wild plants around day nine,” Choi noted. “But in the modified plants, these signs appeared in only three days. This is because depriving plants of light restricts their access to sunlight to make Sugar to help their growth.

After reversing the mutation and inverting this protein into the plant, the research team noticed that it brought the plants back to life immediately as if they were not about to die.

Even more exciting is the fact that Golgi bodies are found not only in plants, but also in humans and all eukaryotic organisms. Dahish noted that this research has effectively contributed to developing knowledge about how plants age, which will be truly useful in discovering evidence about the human aging process.

Hence, the team plans to further study the molecular mechanisms behind the results of this study to see how close they are to a breakthrough regarding age-related diseases in humans.

A doctor determines the causes and dangers of tonsillitis

Many people suffer from diseases in the winter, often accompanied by a sore throat. What are the causes of tonsillitis, should they be removed, and is this beneficial for everyone?

In an interview with the newspaper "Izvestia", Dr. Kalsin Gamzatov, a specialist in ear, nose and throat diseases, points out that the tonsils are accumulations of lymphatic tissue in the pharynx.

According to him, it can become inflamed for two reasons. In about 70 percent of cases, the cause is an acute viral infection. In this case, the posterior wall of the pharynx along with the tonsils becomes inflamed, and the disease is called acute tonsillitis and tonsillopharyngitis. Tonsillitis due to viral infection is often accompanied by swelling of the lining of the nasal cavity and throat.

He says: “In addition to viruses, bacteria cause tonsillitis, and in this case sore throat is often caused by streptococci and staphylococci of group А, and infections are rarely caused by fungal infections, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and bacteria found in the oral cavity. During sore throat, The tonsils turn red, swell, and develop a coating on them – either solid or in the form of spots.”

Treatment of the disease depends on the cause. If it is a virus, the patient is prescribed fever-reducing and analgesic medications and is advised to follow a diet and rest. If the cause is bacteria, antibiotics are prescribed.

He says: “Tonsillitis must be treated in a timely manner, otherwise serious complications may arise in the form of pus, which will require immediate surgery in the hospital. This disease is annoying for children and adults alike, and for people with a weak immune system it can be fatal.” ".

According to him, chronic tonsillitis with the formation of plugs in it, recurring bacterial infections, suspicion of malignant tumors, and sleep apnea due to its enlargement indicate the necessity of surgical removal. However, it is prohibited to remove it in the case of serious blood or dental diseases, diabetes, pulmonary tuberculosis, pharyngeal vascular malformations, or in the case of mental illness.

As for children, the process of removing tonsils requires special attention on the part of the doctor. Because in childhood, the tonsils participate in the formation of immunity, so they are usually not completely removed, but only the affected part of them. But if the child's inflammation recurs frequently, the doctor is forced to remove it completely.
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