Scientists: The inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula acquired resistance to malaria more than 5-6 thousand years ago Scientists: The inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula acquired resistance to malaria more than 5-6 thousand years ago

Scientists: The inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula acquired resistance to malaria more than 5-6 thousand years ago

Scientists: The inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula acquired resistance to malaria more than 5-6 thousand years ago

Analysis conducted by an international team of paleontologists showed that a mutation in the G6PD gene that protects against malaria began to actively spread among the inhabitants of ancient Arabia 5-6 thousand years ago.

The press service of the British University of Birmingham reported on Tuesday, February 27, that an international team of paleontologists was able, for the first time, to decipher the genomes of the ancient inhabitants of the legendary state of Telos in ancient Bahrain. Scientists found evidence of the emergence of a widespread mutation in the G6PD gene, which protects the inhabitants of the East. The Middle East outbreak of malaria in the region occurred more than 5-6 thousand years ago.

Roy Martiniano, a researcher at Liverpool John Morris University, said: “Our analysis showed that the mutation in the G6PD gene, which protects against malaria, began to actively spread among the inhabitants of the ancient Arabian Peninsula about 5-6 thousand years ago. At the same time, the ancients moved to agriculture.” “This supposedly created ideal conditions for the spread of malaria.”

It is noteworthy that historians and geneticists were convinced in the past that this mutation in the G6PD gene had penetrated the Arabian Peninsula relatively recently, that is, in the second half of the first millennium BC, in the era of the campaigns of Alexander the Great and the Greek states that he established.

Paleontologists discovered that this is not actually the case by studying the genomes of the inhabitants of the so-called Telos, an ancient country located in the territory of modern Bahrain and its neighboring islands, the Mediterranean coast and the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

The analysis conducted by scientists confirmed that the appearance of this change in the G6PD gene in residents of the eastern part of the Middle East coincides with the emergence and spread of agriculture in the Arabian Peninsula, which indicates, according to scientists, the importance of the role of agriculture and the transition to its practice in light of the spread of malaria and the emergence of a mutation. "Middle Eastern" in the G6PD gene that protects against it.


Discovery of rare bacteria that effectively eat plastic pollutants

Scientists have praised the results of a pioneering study in which they discovered bacteria and proteins actively involved in the decomposition of plastic, providing new insights into tackling the problem of plastic pollution.

Scientists at the University of Stirling's School of Natural Sciences have revealed the crucial role of bacteria that live on plastic debris. They found evidence that could determine the final decomposition of plastics, which can currently take hundreds of years.

The university said that the results of the study confirm the need for further research to determine the function of microorganisms that colonize marine plastic debris across larger geographic areas.

The study also identified rare and understudied bacteria that can help biodegrade plastic, offering new insights into tackling plastic pollution, which represents a global problem, with up to two million metric tons estimated to enter the oceans each year, damaging wildlife and ecosystems.

The scientists, in cooperation with experts from the University of Mons in Belgium, analyzed the proteins found in plastic samples taken from Gullane Beach in East Lothian, Scotland.

Unlike previous studies conducted in warmer climates that focused on the genetic potential of biofilms living in plastics, this research led by Dr. Sabine Matalana-Sorget took a unique approach by analyzing proteins expressed by active microorganisms.

Dr Matalana-Sorget said: “Plastic pollution has reached critical levels in the marine environment, with trillions of individual pieces of plastic estimated to be distributed throughout the world’s oceans. This plastic is causing major environmental, social and economic disruption as it accumulates in ocean gyres and coastal habitats. "It is ingested by fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Microorganisms quickly colonize the surface of plastic pollution when it enters the environment, and their complex ecological interactions can shape the fate of plastic in marine systems."

“Understanding the function and ecology of microorganisms that colonize plastic pollution is vital to appropriately assess the risks of marine plastic pollution and pave the way for biodiscovery beyond plastic biodegradation,” she added.

She continued: “Our study addresses a critical gap in our understanding of the ecological roles of microorganisms that colonize marine plastic pollution. Few studies have identified the metabolic pathways expressed by these microorganisms, especially in cold climates. Our approach used the latest findings in comparative microproteomics and multiomics.” "To determine, not only which microorganisms were present in marine plastic pollution, but also which microorganisms were active. This is important because some of the microorganisms that colonize plastic pollution are known to be able to degrade hydrocarbons and other pollutants."

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