It causes babies to be born with small heads Scientists warn of the Zika virus

It causes babies to be born with small heads Scientists warn of the Zika virus  Scientists have warned that a single mutation in the already rapidly evolving Zika virus could lead to another major outbreak of the disease by evading existing immunity in humans.  This warning highlights fears that this virus could become a new pandemic virus to strike after the Corona pandemic.  Symptoms of the Zika virus In October 2015 an association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly was reported , and soon outbreaks broke out and evidence of transmission emerged throughout the Americas, Africa and other regions of the world. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared Zika infection an international emergency.  The new study, and full details of the Zika virus are in this report.  Zika virus can easily mutate to become more contagious Researchers at the La Jolla Institute of Immunology in California have found that the Zika virus can easily mutate to become more infectious with a single amino acid change.  And in a virus that is already showing signs of rapid evolution, scientists fear that this will allow the infection to spread more widely, according to their paper, published in the journal Cell Reports, and quoted by The Independent .  The scientists found that the dangerous mutation - called I39T / NS2B I39V - boosts the virus's ability to replicate in mice, mosquitoes and human cells.  Zika has many biological characteristics as the dengue virus, and prior exposure to dengue can provide protection against Zika. However, the researchers said that both viruses are rapidly mutating, and an advanced virus means that permanent protection cannot be guaranteed.  Head circumference in a child with alopecia  Zika can change its genetics "Dengue and Zika are RNA viruses, which means they can change their genome (genetic material)," said Professor Sujan Shrestha, who co-led the study with a team from the University of Texas Medical Branch.  "When there are a lot of mosquitoes and many human hosts, these viruses are constantly moving back and forth and evolving," he added.  The Zika virus, which is transmitted by mosquitoes, is usually mild in adults, yet it can infect a developing fetus; This leads to birth defects such as microcephaly, which causes a reduced head size and symptoms including stunted growth, seizures, and delayed speech skills.  In severe cases, it can cause fatal brain damage in children and miscarriage or stillbirth (a stillbirth after 28 weeks or more of gestation, according to UNICEF) in pregnant women, and its prevalence in the Americas in 2015 and 2016 caused global concern.  Also, in rare cases, the Zika virus can cause Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, a serious nerve condition that causes problems such as numbness, weakness and pain.  “This single mutation is sufficient to enhance the virulence of Zika virus,” said Jose Angel Regla Nava, a former researcher at the La Jolla Institute of Immunology and current assistant professor at the University of Guadalajara, Mexico. disease, and cause a new outbreak.  Zika virus Zika virus is a genus of flaviviruses transmitted by mosquitoes, and was first detected in monkeys in Uganda in 1947, and then in humans in 1952 in the same country and the United Republic of Tanzania, according to the World Health Organization.  The organization adds that, "Outbreaks of Zika virus disease were recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific, and during the period between the sixties and eighties, only rare and sporadic cases of human infection with this disease were detected across Africa and Asia, which were usually associated with mild illnesses. ".  Zika virus outbreaks The first recorded outbreak of Zika virus disease was reported in Yap (Federated States of Micronesia) in 2007, followed by another large outbreak of Zika virus disease in 2013 in French Polynesia and other countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean.  In March 2015, Brazil reported a large outbreak of rash, which was quickly identified as Zika virus infection and was considered in July 2015 to be caused by Guillain-Barré syndrome.  In October 2015, Brazil reported an association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly, and outbreaks quickly erupted and evidence emerged of transmission throughout the Americas, Africa and other regions of the world.  Symptoms of Zika virus The incubation period for Zika virus disease (the time from exposure to symptoms) is estimated to range from 3 to 14 days. Most people infected with Zika virus have no symptoms, and symptoms are usually mild and include:  -Fever -Skin rash -Conjunctivitis -Muscle pain -Arthritis -Feeling unwell -Headache How long do Zika symptoms last? Symptoms of Zika usually last for 2 to 7 days.  Complications from Zika virus disease Zika virus infection in pregnant women causes microcephaly and other congenital anomalies to the developing fetus, as well as other complications during pregnancy, such as fetal loss, stillbirths and premature birth.  Zika virus infection also causes Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuropathies and myelitis, especially in adults and older children, according to the WHO.  Zika virus transmission Zika virus infection is transmitted primarily by the bite of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, especially Aedes aegypti, in tropical and subtropical regions.  The Aedes mosquito usually bites humans during the day and peaks in the early morning, late afternoon and evening hours, knowing that it is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.  Zika virus infection is also transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy, and through sexual intercourse, transfusions of blood and blood products, and organ transplants, according to the WHO.  Zika virus treatment There is no treatment available for Zika virus infection or the related diseases. Symptoms of infection are usually mild, and people with symptoms such as fever, rash or joint pain should get plenty of rest, keep fluids and treat pain and fever with common medications. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice.  Pregnant women who live in areas with transmission of Zika virus infection or who develop symptoms of infection should seek medical attention for laboratory testing and other clinical care services, according to the WHO.  Prevention of Zika virus Protection from mosquito bites during the day and before evening is a key measure to prevent Zika virus infection, and special attention should be paid to protecting pregnant women, women of childbearing age and young children from mosquito bites, according to the World Health Organization.  Migraines and the Zika virus Microcephaly is a congenital malformation in which a child's head is smaller than the normal size, as it is in children of the same age and sex. A child with microcephaly often has a small brain, and may not develop and grow normally.  During pregnancy, the normal fetus’s head grows because its brain grows and enlarges, and in melasma, the head remains small because its brain did not develop normally during pregnancy, or because it stopped growing after birth.  It may occur alone or associated with other birth defects, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  A child with alopecia faces multiple problems that depend on the extent of the small head and the severity of the condition, including:  -Seizures. -Growth retardation; -Mental difficulties, such as decreased ability to learn. Problems with movement and balance. -Eating problems, such as swallowing difficulties. -Hearing loss. -Eyesight problems;  Alopecia treatment There is no cure for epilepsy, which is a permanent condition that accompanies the affected child until the end of his life, and treatments aim to help the child overcome previous complications.  In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared Zika infection an international public health emergency due to its association with thousands of fetal malformations (alopecia) in Brazil.  On February 8, 2016, Brazilian Health Minister Marcelo Castro told Reuters that Brazilian researchers are convinced that Zika is the cause of 3,700 confirmed or suspected cases of microcephaly in newborns in Brazil.  Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus Guillain - Barré syndrome is a rare and dangerous condition that affects the peripheral nervous system, which includes nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, in which a person's immune system attacks parts of his nervous system.  Guillain-Barré syndrome symptoms Symptoms of the disease begin in the feet and legs before moving to the arms and legs, and include the following symptoms:  -Pain. -Numbness. -Increasing muscle weakness. -Problems coordinating movements, as the person is unable to walk without assistance. -Weakness affects both sides of the body and may get worse over several days.  Guillain-Barré syndrome treatment Treatment for Guillain-Barré syndrome depends on targeting antibodies produced by the immune system to prevent them from attacking the nervous system. Typically, most patients make a full recovery, and recovery may take weeks or months.  In some cases, the patient does not fully recover, and it is estimated that 20% of people with this syndrome suffer from muscle weakness after 3 years of illness, and complications may include problems with balance and sensation and the need for a wheelchair.  The World Health Organization says there is an increased risk that Zika virus infection may cause neurological complications in adults and children, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuropathies and myelitis.

Scientists have warned that a single mutation in the already rapidly evolving Zika virus could lead to another major outbreak of the disease by evading existing immunity in humans.

This warning highlights fears that this virus could become a new pandemic virus to strike after the Corona pandemic.

Symptoms of the Zika virus
In October 2015 an association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly was reported , and soon outbreaks broke out and evidence of transmission emerged throughout the Americas, Africa and other regions of the world. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared Zika infection an international emergency.

The new study, and full details of the Zika virus are in this report.

Zika virus can easily mutate to become more contagious
Researchers at the La Jolla Institute of Immunology in California have found that the Zika virus can easily mutate to become more infectious with a single amino acid change.

And in a virus that is already showing signs of rapid evolution, scientists fear that this will allow the infection to spread more widely, according to their paper, published in the journal Cell Reports, and quoted by The Independent .

The scientists found that the dangerous mutation - called I39T / NS2B I39V - boosts the virus's ability to replicate in mice, mosquitoes and human cells.

Zika has many biological characteristics as the dengue virus, and prior exposure to dengue can provide protection against Zika. However, the researchers said that both viruses are rapidly mutating, and an advanced virus means that permanent protection cannot be guaranteed.

Head circumference in a child with alopecia

Zika can change its genetics
"Dengue and Zika are RNA viruses, which means they can change their genome (genetic material)," said Professor Sujan Shrestha, who co-led the study with a team from the University of Texas Medical Branch.

"When there are a lot of mosquitoes and many human hosts, these viruses are constantly moving back and forth and evolving," he added.

The Zika virus, which is transmitted by mosquitoes, is usually mild in adults, yet it can infect a developing fetus; This leads to birth defects such as microcephaly, which causes a reduced head size and symptoms including stunted growth, seizures, and delayed speech skills.

In severe cases, it can cause fatal brain damage in children and miscarriage or stillbirth (a stillbirth after 28 weeks or more of gestation, according to UNICEF) in pregnant women, and its prevalence in the Americas in 2015 and 2016 caused global concern.

Also, in rare cases, the Zika virus can cause Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, a serious nerve condition that causes problems such as numbness, weakness and pain.

“This single mutation is sufficient to enhance the virulence of Zika virus,” said Jose Angel Regla Nava, a former researcher at the La Jolla Institute of Immunology and current assistant professor at the University of Guadalajara, Mexico. disease, and cause a new outbreak.

Zika virus
Zika virus is a genus of flaviviruses transmitted by mosquitoes, and was first detected in monkeys in Uganda in 1947, and then in humans in 1952 in the same country and the United Republic of Tanzania, according to the World Health Organization.

The organization adds that, "Outbreaks of Zika virus disease were recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific, and during the period between the sixties and eighties, only rare and sporadic cases of human infection with this disease were detected across Africa and Asia, which were usually associated with mild illnesses. ".

Zika virus outbreaks
The first recorded outbreak of Zika virus disease was reported in Yap (Federated States of Micronesia) in 2007, followed by another large outbreak of Zika virus disease in 2013 in French Polynesia and other countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean.

In March 2015, Brazil reported a large outbreak of rash, which was quickly identified as Zika virus infection and was considered in July 2015 to be caused by Guillain-Barré syndrome.

In October 2015, Brazil reported an association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly, and outbreaks quickly erupted and evidence emerged of transmission throughout the Americas, Africa and other regions of the world.

Symptoms of Zika virus
The incubation period for Zika virus disease (the time from exposure to symptoms) is estimated to range from 3 to 14 days. Most people infected with Zika virus have no symptoms, and symptoms are usually mild and include:

-Fever
-Skin rash
-Conjunctivitis
-Muscle pain
-Arthritis
-Feeling unwell
-Headache
How long do Zika symptoms last?
Symptoms of Zika usually last for 2 to 7 days.

Complications from Zika virus disease
Zika virus infection in pregnant women causes microcephaly and other congenital anomalies to the developing fetus, as well as other complications during pregnancy, such as fetal loss, stillbirths and premature birth.

Zika virus infection also causes Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuropathies and myelitis, especially in adults and older children, according to the WHO.

Zika virus transmission
Zika virus infection is transmitted primarily by the bite of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, especially Aedes aegypti, in tropical and subtropical regions.

The Aedes mosquito usually bites humans during the day and peaks in the early morning, late afternoon and evening hours, knowing that it is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

Zika virus infection is also transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy, and through sexual intercourse, transfusions of blood and blood products, and organ transplants, according to the WHO.

Zika virus treatment
There is no treatment available for Zika virus infection or the related diseases.
Symptoms of infection are usually mild, and people with symptoms such as fever, rash or joint pain should get plenty of rest, keep fluids and treat pain and fever with common medications. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice.

Pregnant women who live in areas with transmission of Zika virus infection or who develop symptoms of infection should seek medical attention for laboratory testing and other clinical care services, according to the WHO.

Prevention of Zika virus
Protection from mosquito bites during the day and before evening is a key measure to prevent Zika virus infection, and special attention should be paid to protecting pregnant women, women of childbearing age and young children from mosquito bites, according to the World Health Organization.

Migraines and the Zika virus
Microcephaly is a congenital malformation in which a child's head is smaller than the normal size, as it is in children of the same age and sex. A child with microcephaly often has a small brain, and may not develop and grow normally.

During pregnancy, the normal fetus’s head grows because its brain grows and enlarges, and in melasma, the head remains small because its brain did not develop normally during pregnancy, or because it stopped growing after birth.

It may occur alone or associated with other birth defects, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

A child with alopecia faces multiple problems that depend on the extent of the small head and the severity of the condition, including:

-Seizures.
-Growth retardation;
-Mental difficulties, such as decreased ability to learn. Problems with movement and balance.
-Eating problems, such as swallowing difficulties.
-Hearing loss.
-Eyesight problems;

Alopecia treatment
There is no cure for epilepsy, which is a permanent condition that accompanies the affected child until the end of his life, and treatments aim to help the child overcome previous complications.

In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared Zika infection an international public health emergency due to its association with thousands of fetal malformations (alopecia) in Brazil.

On February 8, 2016, Brazilian Health Minister Marcelo Castro told Reuters that Brazilian researchers are convinced that Zika is the cause of 3,700 confirmed or suspected cases of microcephaly in newborns in Brazil.

Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus
Guillain - Barré syndrome is a rare and dangerous condition that affects the peripheral nervous system, which includes nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, in which a person's immune system attacks parts of his nervous system.

Guillain-Barré syndrome symptoms
Symptoms of the disease begin in the feet and legs before moving to the arms and legs, and include the following symptoms:

-Pain.
-Numbness.
-Increasing muscle weakness.
-Problems coordinating movements, as the person is unable to walk without assistance.
-Weakness affects both sides of the body and may get worse over several days.

Guillain-Barré syndrome treatment
Treatment for Guillain-Barré syndrome depends on targeting antibodies produced by the immune system to prevent them from attacking the nervous system. Typically, most patients make a full recovery, and recovery may take weeks or months.

In some cases, the patient does not fully recover, and it is estimated that 20% of people with this syndrome suffer from muscle weakness after 3 years of illness, and complications may include problems with balance and sensation and the need for a wheelchair.

The World Health Organization says there is an increased risk that Zika virus infection may cause neurological complications in adults and children, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuropathies and myelitis.
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