Japan : Growing vegetables in soil that mimics the soil of the asteroid Ryugu Japan : Growing vegetables in soil that mimics the soil of the asteroid Ryugu

Japan : Growing vegetables in soil that mimics the soil of the asteroid Ryugu

Japan : Growing vegetables in soil that mimics the soil of the asteroid Ryugu

Scientists at Japan's Oyakama University believe that the success of this experiment could confirm the possibility of agriculture on extraterrestrial planets.

Yomiuri newspaper indicates that scientists were able to grow vegetables in soil that completely mimics the soil models of the asteroid Ryugu that were transported to Earth in 2020. According to them, this experiment confirms the possibility of cultivation on extraterrestrial bodies.

It is noteworthy that scientists from Japan's Okayama University studied and analyzed in detail samples of soil and stones brought from the asteroid Ryugu, which turned out to contain many organic materials and silicon. They were also able to isolate 23 amino acids, including those involved in the synthesis of proteins.

Based on this analysis, the researchers were able to accurately reproduce the asteroid's soil, where they succeeded in growing buckwheat, lettuce, and arugula. The buckwheat has flowered and the lettuce has reached its normal size. Meanwhile, researchers were unable to grow full grass in soil brought from the asteroid Ryugu. They believe that their experiments will help create technologies that open the way to obtaining food in settlements on other planets.

Air pollution causes more than 5 million additional deaths annually around the world

Air pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels in industry, power generation and transportation causes an additional 5.13 million deaths annually worldwide, according to a new study.
It turns out that death rates are highest in countries that have lagged behind in ending the burning of coal for energy production, namely China and India.

These shocking numbers, published by The BMJ magazine on the eve of the Cop28 climate summit in Dubai, would increase the pressure on world leaders to take the necessary measures.

The results of the study confirm the necessity of switching from fossil fuels to clean, renewable energy sources, which may save many lives from air pollution and help combat global warming.

These findings add to what we already know about the deadly effects of polluted air, including cardiovascular disease, asthma and lung cancer.

The new study was conducted by an international team of experts, including British epidemiologist Andy Haines at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

The team says: “The results show that the burden of deaths attributable to air pollution caused by fossil fuel use is higher than most previous estimates. Phasing out fossil fuels is an effective intervention to improve health and save lives. Deaths due to air pollution are particularly high in the South and East Asia, due to high levels of pollution and population density.”

Researchers say deadly pollutants in outdoor air include ozone (O3), which arises from reactions between nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, both of which are emitted by vehicles, industrial and other processes.

At ground level, ozone causes the smog commonly seen in cities and can cause breathing problems, especially for frail people with lung diseases such as asthma.

Another nasty pollutant is known as PM2.5, which are tiny particles or droplets less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter, which are invisible to the naked eye and can be easily inhaled.

Inhaling PM2.5 is already thought to cause asthma, lung and heart disease, and even symptoms of depression, but many of its health effects remain to be discovered.

In the new study, researchers used computer modeling to evaluate the relationship between air pollution exposure and health outcomes around the world.

Data sources for the model included population figures, NASA satellite images, and insights from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study, which determines national and regional death rates.

The results showed that in 2019, 8.34 million deaths worldwide were attributable to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) in ambient air, of which 61% (5.13 million) were linked to fossil fuels.

The remaining 39% of non-fossil fuel air pollution comes from unavoidable natural sources, such as desert dust and forest fires, as well as residential energy use, such as burning solid biofuels for cooking and heating.

The researchers found that deaths caused by fossil fuel air pollution were highest in South and East Asia, especially in China, where they reached 2.44 million annually, followed by India with 2.18 million annually.

Just over half of all deaths (52%) were related to cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease (30%).

Meanwhile, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a group of lung conditions that cause breathing problems, account for 16%.

About 20% of them were “unspecified” but were likely related in part to high blood pressure and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

As part of the study, the researchers also looked at four different scenarios to evaluate the potential health benefits from policies that replace fossil fuels with clean, renewable energy sources.

The team found that phasing out fossil fuels would lead to the largest reduction in deaths in South, Southeast and East Asia, amounting to about 3.85 million annually, which equates to between 80% and 85% of preventable deaths caused by all human sources of air pollution. The ocean in these areas.

As the COP28 climate summit begins on Thursday, researchers are urging leaders to commit to an accelerated phase-out of fossil fuels across all activities, and say high-income countries must lead the way.
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